Lesson 3A (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 3A (Part 1) Deck (30)
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1

Int he pancreas intra or retroperitoneal?

Retroperitoneal

2

What are the 3 vascular landmarks for the pancreas?

1. Splenic vein
2. SMA
3. IVC

3

Where does the CBD run compared to the head of the pancreas?

Posterior to it

4

Where does the GDA run compared to the head of the pancreas?

Anterior lateral to it

5

What are the 2 ducts in the pancreas?

1. Main pancreatic duct
- duct of wirsung
2. Accessory duct
- duct of santorini

6

What are the 2 functions of the pancreas?

1. Endocrine
2. Exocrine
- this is the main one

7

What is the endocrine functions of the pancreas?

Islet cells of Langerhans secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

8

What do the alpa cells from the islet cells of Langerhans secrete?

Glucagon
- increases blood glucose

9

What do the beta cells from the islet cells of Langerhans secrete?

Insulin
- decreases blood glucose

10

What does failure to secrete sufficient insulin leads to?

Diabetes

11

What is the exocrine functions of the pancreas?

Digestive enzymes secreted by the acinar cells drain into the duodenum through pancreatic ducts

12

What does amylase break down?

Carbohydrates

13

What does lipase break down?

Fats

14

What does trypsin break down?

Proteins

15

What is the normal range of serum amylase?

25-125 U/L

16

What does serum amylase increase with? (4)

1. Acute pancreatitis
2. Pancreatic pseudocyst
3. Intestinal obstruction
4. Peptic ulcer disease

17

What does serum amylase decrease with? (2)

1. Hepatitis
2. Cirrhosis

18

How long does serum amylase remains elevated for in episodes of acute pancreatitis?

Approximately 24 hours

19

What remains increased longer than serum amylase in episodes of acute pancreatitis?

Urine amylase

20

What is the normal range of serum lipase?

10-140 U/L

21

What remains elevated for a longer period (up to 14 days?)

Serum lipase

22

What does serum lipase increase with? (6)

1. Pancreatitis
2. Obstruction of the pancreatic duct
3. Pancreatic carcinoma
4. Acute cholecystitis
5. Cirrhosis
6. Severe renal disease

23

What is the normal range of glucose when fasting?

< 100mg/dL

24

What is the normal range of glucose 2 hours post prandial?

< 145mg/dL

25

What does glucose increase with? (3)

1. Severe diabetes mellitus
2. Chronic liver disease
3. Overactivity of endocrine glands

26

What does glucose decrease with?

Tumours of islet cells of Langerhans in the pancreas

27

Where do tumours normally occur in the pancreas?

In the head

28

Why do tumours normally occur in the head of the pancreas?

Because it has the largest AP measurement

29

What is the echogenicity of the uncinate process?

Hypoechoic

30

What is a normal varient of the pancreas?

Pseudomass
- larger head bulging to the right of the GDA