Lesson 2A (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 2A (Part 1) Deck (30)
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1

What is the biliary system made up of? (3)

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts
- part of the triad
2. GB
3. CBD

2

What do hepatocytes produce?

Bile

3

Where is bile transported through?

Through the right and left intrahepatic bile ducts to the porta hepatis where they converge to form the common hepatic duct

4

How does common hepatic duct transport bile into the GB?

Through the cystic duct

5

What controls the flow of bile?

Valves of Heister in the cystic duct

6

Where is the extrahepatic CBD compared to the cystic duct and CHD?

It is distal to it

7

What does the GB do? (4)

1. Stores and concentrates bile
2. Transports bile through the CBD to the duodenum
3. When fat enters the digestive system, cholecystokinen is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of bile into the CBD and duodenum
4. Bile enters the Ampulla of Vater along with enzymes from the pancreas through the duct of Wirsung to aid in the digestion of fats in our digestive system

8

What is the GB and cystic duct supplied by?

The cystic artery

9

What is the cystic artery a branch from?

Right hepatic artery

10

What is routinely looked at when scanning the biliary system? (2)

1. Liver
2. Pancreas

11

Why is the liver and pancreas scanning when looking at the biliary system?

Because they are intertwined in their functions and affects each other

12

How do you get indirect bilirubin?

When the liver breaks down old red blood cells and then changes it to direct where the GB discrete it

13

What is the normal total bilirubin value?

0.3-1.1 dL
- indirect

14

What is the direct bilirubin value?

0.1-0.4 dL
- direct

15

What is bilirubin?

A product from the breakdown of hemoglobin in old red blood cells

16

What does leakage of bilirubin into the tissue give?

Jaundice

17

What does bilirubin reflect?

The balance between production and excretion of bile

18

What is elevation of direct or conjugated bilirubin associated with? (4)

1. Obstruction
2. Hepatitis
3. Cirrhosis
4. Liver metastases

19

What is elevation of indirect or unconjugated bilirubin associated with?

Nonobstructive conditions
- eg) steatosis

20

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase
- an enzyme

21

What is ALP produced by? (3)

1. Liver
2. Bone
3. Placenta

22

Where is ALP excreted through?

Bile ducts

23

What is marked elevation of ALP associated with?

Jaundice

24

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

25

Where is ALT found in high concentrations?

Liver

26

Where is ALT found in low concentrations? (3)

1. Heart
2. Muscle
3. Kidneys

27

What enzyme remains elevated longer, AST or ALT?

ALT

28

What is ALT used to asses?

Jaundice

29

What is elevated levels of ALT associated with? (3)

1. Cirrhosis
2. Hepatitis
3. Biliary obstruction

30

What is mild elevations levels of ALT associated with?

Liver metastases