Lesson 4B (Part 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 4B (Part 3) Deck (30)
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1

Cystitis

Bladder infections

2

Who are more at an increase risk for cystitis?

Women

3

Why are women at a more at an increase risk for cystitis?

Due to their short urethras

4

What is the cause of cystitis?

Colonization of rectal flora

5

What is the result of cystitis in men? (2)

1. Bladder outlet obstruction
2. Prostatitis

6

What is the most common pathogen with cystitis?

E. Coli

7

What are signs of cystitis? (2)

1. Bladder irritability
2. Hematuria

8

What is the sonographic appearance of cystitis?

Diffuse bladder wall thickening

9

Emphysematous cystitis

Gas present in lumen and wall of bladder

10

Who does emphysematous cystitis affect most?

Diabetic females

11

What is the sonographic appearance of emphysematous cystitis? (2)

1. Wall-thick
2. Echogenic

12

Malacoplakia

Rare granulomatous infection

13

What is the cause of malacoplakia?

Unknown

14

Who does malacoplakia cystitis affect most?

Women in their 60s

15

What are 2 signs of malacoplakia?

1. Hematuria
2. Bladder irritability

16

What is the sonographic appearance of malacoplakia cystitis?

Mucosal masses

17

What is an example of chronic cystitis?

Brunns epithelial nests

18

What does brunns epithelial nests mimic?

Neoplasia
- appear solid
- within bladder wall

19

Cystitis cystica

Cysts may develop in nests

20

Cystitis glandularis

May develop into glandular structures

21

What could cystitis glandularis be a precursor for?

Adenocarcinoma
- cysts/solid masses in wall

22

What are causes of bladder fistulas? (5)

1. Congenital
2. Trauma
3. Inflammation
4. Radiation
5. Neoplasm

23

Where may fistulas occur from?

The bladder to the vagina, gut, skin, uterus and ureter

24

What are the tracks like in a bladder fistula?

Thin and short
- difficult to identify

25

What might be in the bladder lumen if it communicates with the gut, vagina or skin?

Gas

26

What are 4 types of bladder fistulas?

1. Vesicovaginal
2. Vesicoenteric
3. Vesicocutaneous
4. Vesicoureteral

27

Vesicovaginal

Carcinoma of the bladder or cervix
- most often related to gynecological or urological surgery

28

Vesicoenteric

Complication of diverticulitis or Crohn’s disease
- bladder and gut

29

Vesicocutaneous

surgery or trauma may be the cause
- bladder and skin

30

Vesicoureteral

Rare occurrence after hysterectomy
- bladder and ureters