Flashcards in Lesson 4A (Part 1) Deck (29)
What is the functioning unit of the kidney?
What enters at the hilum of the kidney?
Main renal artery
What is the arterial branching order? (4)
1. Segmental artery
2. Interlobar/interlobar arteries
3. Arcuate artery
4. Interlobular artery
What exits at the hilum of the kidney?
Main renal vein
Are kidneys intra or retroperitoneal?
What are the 3 dimensions of the kidney?
1. Length = 9-12 cm
2. Width = 4-5 cm
3. Height = 2.5-3 cm
What is the minimum cortical thickness?
What does it mean if the cortical thickness is less than 1 cm?
It indicates a renal disease
What are the functions of the kidney? (7)
1. Produces hormones
2. Absorbs minerals, filters blood and produces urine
3. Balances water
4. Blood pressure regulation
- hormone renin
5. Sodium and water are increased and decreased if necessary
6. Blood cell regulation by hormone erythropoeitin-stimulates bone marrow to produce more RBCs
7. Acid regulation-keeps a healthy balance
What is the sonographers role when scanning the urinary system? (2)
1. Patient history is important
2. Patient should be properly prepared with a full bladder to assess complete urinary tract
What is colour doppler useful for when scanning the urinary system?
To find the ureteric jets
What do jets tell us?
Whether there is an obstruction or not
What are potential lab values we can get with the urinary system? (4)
What is the normal range of creatinine?
Is a waste product produced from meat protein and normal wear and tear on the muscles in the body
What is the most specific way in determining any renal dysfunction?
When is creatinine elevated? (3)
1. Renal failure
2. Chronic nephritis
3. Urinary obstruction
Blood urea nitrogen
What is the normal BUN range?
What is BUN produced from?
The breakdown of food proteins
When is BUN elevated? (3)
1. Urinary obstruction
2. Renal dysfunction
When is BUN decreased? (5)
1. Over hydration
3. Liver failure
4. Decrease in protein intake
Visible microscopic red blood cells in the urine under the microscope
What is microscopic hematuria associated with?
Early renal disease
Visible with the naked eye
- visible blood in the urine
What is macroscopic hematuria associated with? (2)
2. Bladder neoplasms
Abnormal amount of protein in the urine
What is proteinuria associated with? (7)
4. Polycystic disease
6. Diabetes mellitus
7. Increases the risk of developing progressive renal dysfunction