Lesson 4A (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 4A (Part 1) Deck (29)
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1

What is the functioning unit of the kidney?

Nephron

2

What enters at the hilum of the kidney?

Main renal artery

3

What is the arterial branching order? (4)

1. Segmental artery
2. Interlobar/interlobar arteries
3. Arcuate artery
- cortex
4. Interlobular artery

4

What exits at the hilum of the kidney?

Main renal vein

5

Are kidneys intra or retroperitoneal?

Retroperitoneal

6

What are the 3 dimensions of the kidney?

1. Length = 9-12 cm
2. Width = 4-5 cm
3. Height = 2.5-3 cm

7

What is the minimum cortical thickness?

1 cm

8

What does it mean if the cortical thickness is less than 1 cm?

It indicates a renal disease

9

What are the functions of the kidney? (7)

1. Produces hormones
2. Absorbs minerals, filters blood and produces urine
3. Balances water
- autoregulatory
4. Blood pressure regulation
- hormone renin
5. Sodium and water are increased and decreased if necessary
6. Blood cell regulation by hormone erythropoeitin-stimulates bone marrow to produce more RBCs
7. Acid regulation-keeps a healthy balance

10

What is the sonographers role when scanning the urinary system? (2)

1. Patient history is important
2. Patient should be properly prepared with a full bladder to assess complete urinary tract

11

What is colour doppler useful for when scanning the urinary system?

To find the ureteric jets

12

What do jets tell us?

Whether there is an obstruction or not

13

What are potential lab values we can get with the urinary system? (4)

1. Creatinine
2. BUN
3. Hematuria
4. Proteinuria

14

What is the normal range of creatinine?

0.6-1.2 mg/dL

15

Creatinine

Is a waste product produced from meat protein and normal wear and tear on the muscles in the body

16

What is the most specific way in determining any renal dysfunction?

Creatinine

17

When is creatinine elevated? (3)

1. Renal failure
2. Chronic nephritis
3. Urinary obstruction

18

BUN

Blood urea nitrogen

19

What is the normal BUN range?

11-23 mg/dL

20

What is BUN produced from?

The breakdown of food proteins

21

When is BUN elevated? (3)

1. Urinary obstruction
2. Renal dysfunction
3. Dehydration

22

When is BUN decreased? (5)

1. Over hydration
2. Pregnancy
3. Liver failure
4. Decrease in protein intake
5. Smoking

23

Microscopic hematuria

Visible microscopic red blood cells in the urine under the microscope

24

What is microscopic hematuria associated with?

Early renal disease

25

Macroscopic hematuria

Visible with the naked eye
- visible blood in the urine

26

What is macroscopic hematuria associated with? (2)

1. Infection
2. Bladder neoplasms

27

Proteinuria

Abnormal amount of protein in the urine

28

What is proteinuria associated with? (7)

1. Nephritis
2. Nephrolithiasis
3. Carcinoma
4. Polycystic disease
5. Hypertension
6. Diabetes mellitus
7. Increases the risk of developing progressive renal dysfunction

29

What are 8 indications for a urinary tract US?

1. Increase in creatinine, BUN levels and proteinuria
2. Urinary tract infection
3. Flank pain
4. Hematuria
5. Hypertension
6. Decrease in urine output
7. Trauma
8. Evaluate mass from other medical imaging
- CT