Flashcards in Lesson 4B (Part 5) Deck (16)
What does bladder calculi cause? (2)
1. Migration of stones from the kidney
2. Stasis related to bladder outlet obstruction, cystocele, neurogenic bladder or foreign body
Is bladder calculi symptomatic or asymptomatic?
- unless obstructed
Large, jagged coral shaped calcification that resembles horns of a stag that is the result of recurrent infections
Who are staghorn calculi more commonly seen in?
What are the symptoms of staghorn calculi? (3)
3. Flank pain
What kind of patients are staghorn calculi frequently seen in?
Patients with a neurogenic bladder
Extra renal pelvis
Renal pelvis lies partly outside of the kidney
- frequently dilated with urine
Renal parenchymal calcification
What does nephrocalcinosis dystrophic occur in? (3)
What does nephrocalcinosis metastatic occur in?
- renal failure
What does nephrocalcinosis look like on US?
Medullary pyramids are surrounded with calcium deposits exhibiting acoustic shadowing
- within the collecting system
- echogenic around the pyramids
Chronic renal failure
A medical condition of impaired kidney function in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter metabolic wastes from the blood
What are 5 causes of renal failure?
3. Vascular disease
4. Diabetes mellitus
5. Chronic hydronephrosis
What are the clinical findings of renal failure? (7)
1. Elevated BUN and creatinine
What are the sonographic findings of renal failure? (4)
1. Renal atrophy
2. Hyperechoic parenchyma
3. Thin renal cortex <1cm
4. Difficult to distinguish the kidney from the surrounding structures