Lesson 4B (Part 5) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 4B (Part 5) Deck (16)
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1

What does bladder calculi cause? (2)

1. Migration of stones from the kidney
2. Stasis related to bladder outlet obstruction, cystocele, neurogenic bladder or foreign body

2

Is bladder calculi symptomatic or asymptomatic?

Asymptomatic
- unless obstructed

3

Staghorn Calculi

Large, jagged coral shaped calcification that resembles horns of a stag that is the result of recurrent infections

4

Who are staghorn calculi more commonly seen in?

Women

5

What are the symptoms of staghorn calculi? (3)

1. Fever
2. Hematuria
3. Flank pain

6

What kind of patients are staghorn calculi frequently seen in?

Patients with a neurogenic bladder

7

Extra renal pelvis

Renal pelvis lies partly outside of the kidney
- frequently dilated with urine

8

Nephrocalcinosis

Renal parenchymal calcification

9

What does nephrocalcinosis dystrophic occur in? (3)

1. Tumors
2. Abscess
3. Hematomas

10

What does nephrocalcinosis metastatic occur in?

Hypercalcemic states
- hyperparathyroidism
- renal failure
- acidosis

11

What does nephrocalcinosis look like on US?

Medullary pyramids are surrounded with calcium deposits exhibiting acoustic shadowing
- within the collecting system
- echogenic around the pyramids

12

Chronic renal failure

A medical condition of impaired kidney function in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter metabolic wastes from the blood

13

What are 5 causes of renal failure?

1. Glomerulonephritis
2. Hypertension
3. Vascular disease
4. Diabetes mellitus
5. Chronic hydronephrosis

14

What are the clinical findings of renal failure? (7)

1. Elevated BUN and creatinine
2. Proteinuria
3. Polyuria
4. Headaches
5. Fatigue
6. Weakness
7. Anemia

15

What are the sonographic findings of renal failure? (4)

1. Renal atrophy
2. Hyperechoic parenchyma
3. Thin renal cortex <1cm
4. Difficult to distinguish the kidney from the surrounding structures

16

What does renal failure lead to? (2)

1. Dialysis
2. Renal transplant