Lesson 4A (Part 4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 4A (Part 4) Deck (33)
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1

What does supernumerary kidney look like on US?

An extra kidney will be found
- usually smaller

2

Where is the supernumerary kidney located?

Found above, below in front of or behind the normal kidney

3

What is the most common congenital anomaly?

Duplex collecting system

4

Duplex collecting system

Two separate collecting systems, ureters and their own ureteral orifice

5

Where do the ureters join and enter the bladder with an incomplete duplication?

Through a single ureteral orifice

6

What do patients of an increase risk of with a incomplete duplication?

Increased incidence of UPJ obstruction and uterus didelphys-duplex uterus

7

Incomplete duplication

Ureter draining the lower pole has a more perpendicular course through the bladder wall

8

What are you more prone to with an incomplete duplication? (2)

1. Reflux
2. Obstruction

9

What does obstruction of the ureter result in?

Cystic dilation of the intramural portion of the ureter

10

What does cystic dilation of the intramural portion of the ureter give rise to?

Ureteroceles

11

What are ureteroceles prone to?

Ureteral obstruction
- UTI’s

12

What is the treatment for ureteroceles?

Surgical

13

How do ureteroceles appear on US?

Round cyst like structure in the bladder

14

What does colour doppler do with ureteroceles?

Assess both jets

15

What may be present in the upper poles of ureteroceles?

Hydronephrosis

16

What is a common anomaly that causes a kink?

Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
- UPJ

17

Who is UPJ more common in?

Men

18

What happens with UPJ obstructions? (3)

1. Stones
2. Infection
3. Impaired renal function

19

What are 3 anomalies of bladder development?

1. Bladder agenesis
2. Bladder duplication
3. Bladder exstrophy

20

Bladder agenesis

No bladder

21

How are more infants with bladder agenesis?

Stillborn

22

What gender is more likely to survive bladder agensis?

Females

23

What are the 3 types of bladder duplication?

1. Complete/incomplete peritoneal fold separates 2 bladders
2. Complete/incomplete septum divides bladder
- may be multiple septa
3. Transverse band of muscle divides the bladder into 2 unequal parts

24

Bladder Exstrophy

Congenital absence of lower abdominal and anterior bladder wall

25

What increases with bladder exstrophy?

The incidence of bladder carcinoma

26

Aberrant vessels

During embryology, the kidney receives blood from the higher levels of the Aorta

27

When will aberrant renal arteries be present?

If supply from lower levels persist

28

Who is retrocaval ureter more common with?

Males

29

Retrocaval ureter

If the infrarenal IVC does not develop from the usual Supracardinal vein, the ureter will pass posterior to the IVC
- may become compressed as the ureter takes an unusual path before entering the bladder

30

How can urachal anomalies present as? (5)

1. Patent
- associated with urethral obstruction
2. Cyst
- urachus closes at umbilical and bladder ends
3. Sinus
- closes at bladder, patent at umbilicus
4. Abscess in the abdominal wall
- may form in the abdominal wall arising from the urachus
5. Diverticulum
- closes at umbilicus,open at bladder