Flashcards in 2/20 Deck (89)
-who releases it?
-what does it do?
-Promotes differentiation of B cells.
-Enhances class switching to IgA.
-Stimulates growth/differentiation of eosinophils.
Supports growth/differentiation of bone marrow stem cells.
-functions like GM-CSF
-glans penis, corpus cavernosum/spongiosum (via DHT)
-glans clitorus, vestibular bulbs (via E)
-ventral shaft of penis (urethra)
Hypocalcemia/parasthesias after a blood transfusion? How?
Citrate is an anti-coagulant thats mixed into blood transfusions prior to storage.
-Citrate can chelate calcium and cause hypocalcemia.
-usually after a massive transfusion.
Hyperkalemia after a blood transfusion? How?
RBCs may lyse in old blood units.
Partial central DI vs Complete central DI
->50% inc. in urine osm = complete
-<50% inc. in urine osm = partial
-measured 1 hr after DDAVP infusion.
Superficial inguinal nodes
-what do they drain
-anterior thigh, right under inguinal ligament.
-drain nearly all cutaneous structures inferior to umbilicus including the external genitalia and the anus up to the pectinate line. Includes scrotum.
Deep inguinal nodes
-what do they drain
-under fascia lata, on medial side of femoral vein.
-superficial inguinal nodes, deep lymphatic trunks along the femoral vessels, glans penis & clitoris.
-used in parkinsons.
-close potassium channel in beta-cell => depolarizes cell
=> Ca influx => insulin release.
Glyburide, glipizine, glimepiride.
-sulfonylurea, 2nd gen.
Axial images (even CT scans)
-viewed from patients feet.
-so left side of image is pt's right side.
Most common finding in PCA infarct?
-which CNs does PCA help supply?
-contralateral hemianopia often w/macular sparing.
-CN 3 & 4
Ischemic stroke affects which vessel the most often?
-necrolytic migratory erythema.
-normochromic normocytic anemia
-delayed wound healing
-may predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis.
Not resorbed & not secreted
Filtered & actively secreted
-Not resorbed & slightly secreted
-Kind of like inulin
*overestimates GFR a tad b/c its slightly secreted.
Resorption of filtered water in the tubule
-20% descending henle
-up to 20% collecting duct (via ADH) depending on hydration status.
-do you get cataracts?
-detects which sugars?
-no fructose or galactose.
Interviewing technique: reflection
Physician repeats what the patient tells him.
Neurogenic bladder vs urinary retention
-Neurogenic bladder - you cant control your pee, so you give them a muscarinic antagonist so they dont pee themselves.
-Urinary retention following surgery - they cant pee, so you give them a muscarinic agonist so they can pee.
-for urge incontinence.
Regression of notochord & thyroglossal duct
-what is this an example of?
-block what receptors