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Flashcards in 2/20 Deck (89)
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1

IL-5
-who releases it?
-what does it do?

-Th2 cells
-Promotes differentiation of B cells.
-Enhances class switching to IgA.
-Stimulates growth/differentiation of eosinophils.

2

IL-3

Supports growth/differentiation of bone marrow stem cells.
-functions like GM-CSF

3

Genital tubercle

-glans penis, corpus cavernosum/spongiosum (via DHT)
-glans clitorus, vestibular bulbs (via E)

4

Urogenital folds

-ventral shaft of penis (urethra)
-labia minora

5

Lacioscrotal swelling

-scrotum
-labia majora

6

Hypocalcemia/parasthesias after a blood transfusion? How?

Citrate is an anti-coagulant thats mixed into blood transfusions prior to storage.
-Citrate can chelate calcium and cause hypocalcemia.
-usually after a massive transfusion.

7

Hyperkalemia after a blood transfusion? How?

RBCs may lyse in old blood units.

8

Partial central DI vs Complete central DI

->50% inc. in urine osm = complete
-<50% inc. in urine osm = partial

-measured 1 hr after DDAVP infusion.

9

Superficial inguinal nodes
-location
-what do they drain

-anterior thigh, right under inguinal ligament.
-drain nearly all cutaneous structures inferior to umbilicus including the external genitalia and the anus up to the pectinate line. Includes scrotum.

10

Deep inguinal nodes
-location
-what do they drain

-under fascia lata, on medial side of femoral vein.
-superficial inguinal nodes, deep lymphatic trunks along the femoral vessels, glans penis & clitoris.

11

Pergolide

-D2 agonist
-used in parkinsons.

12

Sulfonylureas
-mechanism

-close potassium channel in beta-cell => depolarizes cell
=> Ca influx => insulin release.

13

Glyburide, glipizine, glimepiride.

-sulfonylurea, 2nd gen.

14

Axial images (even CT scans)

-viewed from patients feet.
-so left side of image is pt's right side.

15

Most common finding in PCA infarct?
-which CNs does PCA help supply?

-contralateral hemianopia often w/macular sparing.
-CN 3 & 4

16

Ischemic stroke affects which vessel the most often?

MCA

17

Glucagonoma

-necrolytic migratory erythema.
-hyperglycemia/DM
-GI Sxs
-normochromic normocytic anemia

18

Zinc deficiency

-delayed wound healing
-hypogonadism
-alopecia
-dysgeusia, anosmia
-acrodermatitis enteropathica
-may predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis.

19

inulin

Not resorbed & not secreted
~GFR

20

PAH

Filtered & actively secreted
~RPF
*not resorbed

21

creatinine

-Not resorbed & slightly secreted
-Kind of like inulin
~GFR
*overestimates GFR a tad b/c its slightly secreted.

22

Resorption of filtered water in the tubule

-60% PCT
-20% descending henle
-up to 20% collecting duct (via ADH) depending on hydration status.

23

Fructose intolerance
-do you get cataracts?

No

24

Urine distick
-detects which sugars?

Only glucose
-no fructose or galactose.

25

Interviewing technique: reflection

Physician repeats what the patient tells him.

26

Neurogenic bladder vs urinary retention

-Neurogenic bladder - you cant control your pee, so you give them a muscarinic antagonist so they dont pee themselves.
-Urinary retention following surgery - they cant pee, so you give them a muscarinic agonist so they can pee.

27

Oxybutynin

anti-muscarinic
-for urge incontinence.

28

Regression of notochord & thyroglossal duct
-what is this an example of?

atrophy

29

TCA
-block what receptors

-anti-alpha1
-anti-cholinergic

30

Anti-psychotics
-block what receptors

-anti-alpha1
-anti-muscarinic
-anti-histamine