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Flashcards in 4/13 overall Deck (68):
1

Musculocutaneous
-sensation where?

lateral forearm.

2

Supracondylar fracture of humerus
-which nerve damaged?

median n.

3

Lumbrical muscles
-actions:

Flex at the MCP joint, extend PIP and DIP joints.

4

Bakers cyst
-where is this?
-what n. can it damage?

-popliteal fossa.
-tibial n.

5

What disease often caused damage to sup. gluteal nerve & led to trendelenburg sign?

polio.

6

Nerve: Long thoracic
-paired artery?

Lateral thoracic

7

Nerve: Axillary
-paired artery?

Posterior circumflex

8

Nerve: Radial
-paired artery?

Deep brachial

9

Nerve: Median
-paired artery?

Brachial

10

Nerve: Tibial
-paired artery?

Popliteal, Posterior tibial.

11

Diffuse epidermal hyperplasia with increased thickness of the stratum spinosum.
-whats the word?
-mnemonic?

Acanthosis.
-think about acanothosis nigricans. Its obviously epidermal hyperplasia, and think of the skin tags as inc. thickness of stratum spinosum (spiny).

12

Inc. thickness of stratum corneum.
-whats the word?
-example?

Hyperkaratosis.
-callus, psoriasis.

13

Hyperkeratosis with retention of nuclei in stratum corneum.
-whats the word?

Parakeratosis.
-actinic keratosis & psoriasis.

14

Epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in intercellular spaces.
-whats the word?

Spongiosis.
-Eczematous dermatitis.

*Edema can get so bad that desmosomes btwn keratinocytes can snap and intraepidermal vesicles can form.

15

Urticaria
-what causes them?

Mast cell degranulation.

16

Which lung has 3 lobes?

Right lung.

17

Aspirate a peanut while supine.
-where will it go?

-superior portion of right inferior lobe.
-posterior segments of right upper lobes.

18

Relation of the pulmonary artery to the bronchus at
each lung hilus is described by what mnemonic?

RALS—Right Anterior; Left Superior.

19

Bottom of lung:
Bottom of pleural cavity:

-6, 8, 10.
-8, 10, 12.

20

What passes thru aortic hiatus at T12?
-mnemonic?

At T12: aorta (red), thoracic duct (white), azygos vein (blue) (“At T-1-2 it’s the red, white, and blue”).

21

Functional residual capacity (FRC)
-define:

RV + ERV (volume in lungs after normal expiration).

*decreased in ARDS.

22

Vital capacity (VC)
-define:
-mnemonic:

TV + IRV + ERV
-Maximum volume of gas that can be expired after a maximal inspiration.
-blowing out birthday candles.

*same as forced vital capacity.

23

Why is diffusion limited in emphysema?

Surface area of diffusion is decreased.

24

When is Pulmonary vascular resistance the lowest?

At FRC (after normal exhalation).

25

Shunt:
-whats the V/Q?
-example?

V/Q = 0
-someone choking.

26

Annular pancreas
-how will it present?

recurrent bilious vomitting as an infant.
-its not going to suddenly show up later in life.

27

Uncinate process
-formed by which pancreatic bud?

Ventral.

28

Which ligament contains portal triad?

hepatoduodenal ligament.

29

Which ligament contains splenic art & vein?

Splenorenal ligament.

30

VIPoma
-Sxs:

-non-α, non-β islet cell pancreatic tumor that secretes VIP.
-Copious Watery Diarrhea, Hypokalemia, and Achlorhydria (WDHA syndrome).

31

VIPoma
-Tx:

octreotide.

32

Pancreatic secretions:
-low flow = high what?
-high flow = high what?

-low flow = high Cl.
-high flow = high bicarb.

33

1st aortic arch:
-develops into?
-mnemonic?

Part of maxillary artery (branch of external carotid).
-1st arch is maximal.

34

2nd aortic arch:
-develops into?
-mnemonic?

-Stapedial artery and hyoid artery.
-Second = Stapedial.

35

3rd aortic arch:
-develops into?
-mnemonic?

-Common Carotid artery and proximal part of internal Carotid artery.
-C is 3rd letter of alphabet.

36

4th aortic arch:
-develops into?
-mnemonic?

-left = aortic arch
-right, proximal part of right subclavian artery.
-4th arch (4 limbs) = systemic.

37

6th aortic arch:
-develops into?

-Proximal part of pulmonary arteries & ductus arteriosus.

38

1st branchial/pharyngeal arch:
-innervation?

V2 & V3.

39

2nd branchial/pharyngeal arch:
-innervation?

CN 7

40

3rd branchial/pharyngeal arch:
-innervation?

CN 9

41

4th branchial/pharyngeal arch:
-innervation?

CN X (superior laryngeal branch).

42

6th branchial/pharyngeal arch:
-innervation?

CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch).

43

pharyngeal nerves?
-whats special about these nerves?

5, 7, 9, 10.
*These are the only CNs with both motor and sensory components
*some say marry money but my brother says big brains matter more.

44

Branchial/pharyngeal apparatus
-contains clefts, arches, and pouches.
-what do each of these classes derive from?
-whats the mnemonic?

CAP covers outside to inside:
Clefts = ectoderm
Arches = mesoderm (& neural crest)
Pouches = endoderm

45

1st branchial cleft
-develops into:

1st cleft develops into external auditory meatus.

46

Treacher Collins syndrome:

1st branchial-arch neural crest fails to migrate =>Ž mandibular hypoplasia, facial abnormalities.

47

1st pouch
-gives rise to:

-endoderm-lined structures of ear.

48

2nd pouch
-gives rise to:

-epithelial lining of palatine tonsil.

49

3rd pouch
-gives rise to:

-inferior parathyroids & thymus.

50

4th pouch
-gives rise to:

-superior parathyroids.

51

3rd v 4th pouch.
-mnemonic for knowing which one gives sup/inf parathyroids:

-3 is inferior # to 4, 3 has inferior parathyroids and 4
has superior parathyroid.

52

Which pouch gives rise to thymus?
-mnemonic?

3rd
-Third = Thymus.
*you know its btwn 3rd and 4th btwn DiGeorge is aberrant development of 3rd & 4th.

53

Relative Risk equation:

a/(a + b) / c/(c + d)

54

Odds ratio equation:

a/c / b/d

55

Attributable risk
-equation? Kind of like what other equation?

Its like relative risk except instead of dividing you subtract.
a/(a + b) - c/(c + d)

56

Number needed to treat
-equation:

1/absolute risk reduction

57

Number needed to harm
-equation:

1/attributable risk

58

Which amino acid used to make NO?

arginine

59

citalopram
-what is it?

SSRI

60

Sciatic nerve: roots:

L2 to S3.

61

Propylthiouracil vs methimazole
-which one also blocks peripheral 5′-deiodinase?
-what is a feared side effect of these two?

-PTU
-agranulocytosis.

62

How long does it take for blastocyst to implant?

6 days minimum.

63

which bugs have IgA protease?

Neisseria, strep pneumo, H.influenzae.

64

Is pancreas retroperitoneal?

yes, except its tail.

65

High FFA relationship to diabetes:

high FFAs inc. insulin resistance.
-"lipotoxicity".

66

Nonpulsatile bleed
-what does this tell u?

Its a venous bleed, not an arterial bleed.

67

Common characteristic of all astrocytomas?

they're all benign.

68

Probenecid
-mech:
-C/I in which pts?

-Inhibits reabsorption of uric acid in PCT (also inhibits secretion of penicillin).
-dont use in pts w/renal failure or urate stones.
*its a uricosuric drug.