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Flashcards in 2/21 Deck (84)
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1

Primitive pulmonary vein

smooth part of left atrium

2

Left horn of sinus venosus

coronary sinus

3

Right horn of sinus venosus

smooth part of right atrium

4

What is the first functional organ in vertebrate embryos?
-what week does it start functioning?

-heart
-week 4

5

When does cardiac looping happen?
-what can go wrong here?

-week 4
-Kartagener syndrome & dextrocardia

6

What fuses to make the membranous IV septum

-muscular interventricular septum
-aorticopulmonary septum
-little by the endocardial cushions

7

Where is a VSD most commonly seen?

-membranous IV septum

8

What are all the heart valves derived from?

-endocardial cushions

9

4 places that fetal erythropoiesis happens.

-Yolk sac (3–8 weeks)
-Liver (6 weeks–birth)
-Spleen (10–28 weeks)
-Bone marrow (18 weeks to adult)

*Young Liver Synthesizes Blood.

10

ductus venosus
-what does this bypass?

-Bypasses hepatic circulation. Blood shunted to IVC instead.

11

What is the formane ovale called after it closes?

-fossa ovalis

12

Where was most of the PGE1 & PGE2 coming from that kept the ductus artiosus open?

-placenta

13

# of umbilical arts?
# of umbilical veins?

-2 umb. arts
-1 umb vein.

14

Umbilical vein

Ligamentum teres hepatis
-Contained in falciform ligament.

15

UmbiLical arteries

MediaL umbilical ligaments

16

Ductus arteriosus

Ligamentum arteriosum

17

Ductus venosus

Ligamentum venosum

18

AllaNtois

Urachus-mediaN umbilical ligament
-The urachus is the part of the allantoic duct between the bladder and the umbilicus.
-Urachal cyst or sinus is a remnant.

19

Notochord

Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc

20

which coronary art supplies the SA & AV nodes?

RCA

21

Right/Left dominant heart depends on whether or not its the RCA or LCX gives off which art?

Posterior descending art.
-85% of time its RCA = right dominant.

22

LAD occlusion: which leads STEMI?

V1-V3

23

Ficke principle

CO = rate of O2 use/(arterial O2 - venous O2)

24

Extracellular sodium conc.
-relationship to inotropy of heart?

-Na/Ca exchanger. Pumps Ca out in exchange for bringing a Na into cell down its conc. gradient.
-The less extracellular sodium = less this pump works b/c of the dec. Na gradient = more Ca stays in the cell = more contractility of cardiac myocyte.

*pretty much same thing as digitalis/digoxin except thats inc. the intracellular Na to dec. the conc. gradient to slow down the Na/Ca pump to inc. intracellular Ca.
-blocks the Na/K ATPase

25

Effect of acidosis on heart inotropy?

-acidosis decreases heart contractility.

26

Afterload equation:
Wall tension =

wall tension = (pressure * radius)/(2*wall thickness)

27

Ejection fraction
-in systolic failure
-in diastolic failure

-systolic failure = dec.
-diastolic failure = same

28

Spherocytosis
-does it inc. or dec. viscosity of blood?

-inc.

29

Whats the period of highest O2 consumption by the heart?

-isovolumentric contraction of left ventricle.

30

a wave

-positive wave
atrial contraction