3/23 Neuro Flashcards Preview

Final FA review > 3/23 Neuro > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3/23 Neuro Deck (113)
Loading flashcards...
1

subthalamic nucleus
-whats it do?
-lesion here causes what?

-inhibits movement on the contralateral side of the body.
-Hemiballismus of the contralateral side, or wild, uncontrollable movement of the right arm and leg.

2

Parkinsons
-chemical imbalance?

dec. dopamine
inc. ACh

3

Lewy bodies
-seen in what disease?
-composed of what?

-Parkinsons, Lewy body dementia
-α-synuclein

4

Huntingtons
-chemical imbalance?
-mnemonic?

Expansion of CAG
-Caudate loses ACh & GABA.
-dec. ACh
-dec. GABA

5

Huntingtons
-what causes the neuronal death?

-NMDA-R binding and glutamate toxicity.

6

Hemiballismus
-usually caused by what?

-lacunar infarct

7

Athetosis
-define:
-seen in what?

-Slow, writhing movements; especially seen in fingers.
-damage to basal ganglia (ie. huntingtons).

8

Dystonia
-define:
-examples:

-Sustained, involuntary muscle contractions.
-Writer’s cramp; blepharospasm (sustained eyelid twitch).

9

Resting tremor
-what relieves it?

-tremor alleviated by intentional movement.

10

Klüver-Bucy syndrome
-wheres the lesion?
-Sxs?
-associated w/which viral infection?

-Amygdala (bilateral).
-hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior.
-HSV-1

11

Spatial neglect syndrome (agnosia of the contralateral side of the world).
-wheres the lesion?

Right parietal-temporal cortex.
*agnosia = inability to process sensory information.

12

agnosia
-define

Inability to process sensory information.

13

Agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, and left-right disorientation.
-wheres the lesion?
-whats this disease called?

-Left parietal-temporal cortex
-Gerstmann syndrome

14

Reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (e.g.,coma)
-wheres the lesion?

Reticular activating system (midbrain)

15

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
-wheres the lesion?
-mnemonic for Sxs?
-associated w/which vitamin def?

Mammillary bodies (bilateral)
-CAN of beer:
-Confusion, Ataxia, Nystagmus.
-thiamine (B1)

16

Damage to cerebellar hemispheres
-contra or ipsilateral deficits?

ipsilateral
-fall toward side of lesion.

17

Cerebellar vermis lesion
-Sxs?

-Truncal ataxia, dysarthria.
-Vermis is centrally located—affects central body.
*as opposed to cerebellar hemispheres which = laterally located and affect lateral limbs.

18

Paramedian pontine reticular formation lesion
-eyes look toward or away from side of lesion?

Eyes look away from side of lesion.

19

Frontal eye fields
-eyes look toward or away from side of lesion?

Eyes look toward lesion

20

Central pontine myelinolysis
-aka?
-cause?
-mnemonic?

-Ostmotic demyelination syndrome.
-Caused by overly rapid correction of hyponatremia.
-“From low to high, your pons will die” (CPM)

21

Fast dec. in serum sodium
-can cause what?
-mnemonic?

“From high to low, your brain will blow”.
-cerebral edema/herniation

22

Central pontine myelinolysis
-Sxs:
-which two tracts are most commonly affects?

-Can cause “locked-in syndrome.”
-Acute paralysis, dysarthria, dysphagia, diplopia, and loss of consciousness.
-corticobulbar & corticospinal tracts.

23

dysarthria
-define:

Motor speech disorder
-movement deficit. As opposed to aphasia which is a language deficit.

24

Where is the brain is the speech center?
-what artery supplies this area?

-Left cerebral hemisphere, in a vascular area supplied by the left middle cerebral artery.

25

Conduction aphasia
-what is it?
-wheres the lesion?

-Poor repetition but fluent speech, intact comprehension.
-left superior temporal lobe and/or left supramarginal gyrus.

26

Nonfluent aphasia with good comprehension and repetition.
-whats the disease?

Transcortical motor aphasia

27

Poor comprehension with fluent speech and repetition.
-whats the disease?

Transcortical sensory aphasia

28

Nonfluent speech, poor comprehension, good repetition.
-whats the disease?

Mixed transcortical aphasia

29

lenticulostriate
-off what big artery?

MCA

30

PCA branches off basilar artery at the:

pontomesencephalic junction.