2/22 Flashcards Preview

Final FA review > 2/22 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2/22 Deck (104)
Loading flashcards...
1

Congenital long QT syndromes
-problem w/what?

-disorder of myocardial repolarization, typically due to ion channel defects.

2

QT interval

-mechanical contraction of ventricles.
-QRS wave til end of T wave (repol).
-long QT interval predisposes to Torsades

3

Romano-Ward syndrome

-congenital long QT
-auto dom.
-pure cardiac phenotype, no deafness

4

Jervell and Lange Neilson syndrome

-congenital long QT
-auto recessive
-sensorineural deafness

5

What is neg. feedback on renin?

-angio2, aldo.
-you can also have low renin (not just by neg feedback) but by high renal perfusion and low Cl- at the macula densa!)

6

What is the most common side effect of epleronone and spironolactone?

-gynecomastia.
-more so w/spironolactone

7

What causes type 4 renal tubular acidosis

-hypoaldosteronism.

8

1-Familial hyperchylomicronemia
-protein defect?
-whats happening?
-major manifestations?

-LPL or apoC2
-TGs can't be broken down and taken out of chylos & VLDL.
-acute pancreatitis, eruptive skin xanthomas, hepatosplenomegaly.
*lipemia retinalis = milky appearing retinal vasculature

9

2a-familial hypercholesterolemia
-protein defect?
-whats happening?
-major manifestations?

-LDL receptor, apoB100
-LDL = full of cholesterol, gets trapped in blood cuz can't be taken up by liver.
-premature CAD, corneal arcus, tendon xanthomas, xanthelasmas.
*xanthoma of achilles tendon

10

4-hypertriglyceridemia
-problem?
-manifestation?

-hepatic overprod. of VLDL.
-pancreatitis

11

Ligand for LDL receptor?

apoB-100

12

familial hyperchylomicronemia
-are they are risk for premature CAD?

-no
-their LDL and HDL levels are fine.
-CAD risk main indicator is HDL levels.

13

What types of drugs have a low volume of distribution?

-large/charged molecules
-plasma protein bound

14

Whats the average total body water?

41 liters
-plasma volume = 3 L
-interstitial = 11 L
*so about 14 L out of 41 L is extracellular fluid.

15

Lichtenburg figures

-fern-leaf pattern cutaneous marks following a lightning strike. lol.

16

U wave
-what is it?
-what can it point to?

-electrical activity of papillary muscles.
-hypokalemia, bradycardia

17

midline of EKG

-cells are depolarized
-no more current flowing

18

which interval = systole?

QT interval
-so vent repolarization is also part of systole.

19

Which drugs can slow down AV node? and how?
-can prevent atrial tachys from getting to ventricles.

-Ca channel blockers: slow phase 0 of AV node.

-beta blockers: blocking beta-1

-digialis: inc. vagal activity, inhibition conduction thru AV node.

20

Heart block
-which segment is elongated?

-AV nodal block aka junctional block.
-PR segment

21

2nd deg. heart block: Mobitz 1
*Wenckebach

Progressive elongation of PR interval until one P wave not followed by QRS, then cycle repeats.
*usually asymptomatic.

22

2nd deg. heart block: Mobitz 2

PR interval is stable, but at some point, a P wave is not followed by QRS.
*often found as 2:1 Heart Block
*often treated w/pacemaker

23

Causes of torsades de pointe
-treatment?

-drugs, dec. K, dec. Mg
-Tx: magnesium sulfate

24

Drugs that can cause torsades

Sotalol, Risperidone (antipsychotics), Macrolides
Chloroquine, Protease inhibitors (-navir), Quinidine (class Ia; also class III), Thiazides
*Some Risky Meds Can Prolong QT

25

Afib: describe tracing

-irregularly irregular
-no discrete P waves (atrial depol)
-

26

Atrial flutter: describe tracing

-A rapid succession of identical, back-to-back atrial depolarization waves.
*Sawtooth appearance.

27

Vfib: describe tracing

-no identifiable waves

28

3rd degree heart block (complete)
-what infection can result in this?

-no AV conduction. atria and ventricles independent of each other.
-atria are faster than ventricles.
-lyme diseaes can lead to complete heart block.

29

B-type (brain) natriuretic peptide
-where is it released from?

-Released from ventricular myocytes in response to inc. tension.
-longer half life than ANP.
-good negative predictive value for diagnosing heart failure.

30

recombinant form of BNP?

neseritide