3/26 Neuro Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3/26 Neuro Deck (183)
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1

fovea: nasal or temporal?
optic disc: nasal or tempora?

fovea: temporal
optic disc: nasal

2

anopia/anopsia
-define:

defect in field of vision
-so when its describing it, like bilateral temporal hemianopsia, it means the temporal visual field is fucked up on both sides.

3

optic radiations
-the path from what to what?

LGN => V1 via optic radiations.

4

optic radiations
-what are the two paths?

1) Meyers loop
2) Dorsal optic radiation

5

Brain lesion where can damage meyers loop?
-stroke in which art dmgs meyers loop?

-temporal lobe
-MCA

6

Meyers loop
-inf or sup retina?
-inf or sup visual field?
-mnemonic?

-inferior retina (on that side) which obviously = superior VF.
-(Max) Myers: lower in brain (inf. 1/2 of neurons) but superior in appearance (sup. 1/2 of VF).

7

What visual process loops around inferior horn of lateral ventricle?

Meyers loop

8

What visual path runs thru the internal capsule?

Dorsal optic radiation

9

Lesion where damages the Dorsal optic radiation?
-stroke in which art dmgs dorsal optic radiation?

-Parietal lobe
-MCA.

10

Dorsal optic radiation
-inf or sup retina?
-where in brain is it located?
-mnemonic

-sup. retina
-parietal lobe
-"parietal lobe is higher up than temporal lobe, DOR is superior 1/2 of retina."

11

4 destinations of optic tract fibers?

1) LGN
2) pretectal nucleus
3) superior colliculus
4) suprachiasmatic nucleus (of hypoT)

12

Sturge-Weber syndrome
-somatic or inherited?
-developmental anomaly of what tissue derivatives?
-ectoderm? mesoderm? endoderm?

-somatic
-neural crest cells.
-ectoderm & mesoderm.

13

Sturge-Weber syndrome
-what type of mutation?
-which gene?

-activating mutation
-GNAQ gene

14

Sturge-Weber syndrome
-in basic terms, whats the problem here?

-problem w/blood vessels.
-you get port-wine stain on face & neurological problems from excessive blood vessel growth on brain (angiomas).

15

Sturge-Weber syndrome
-Sxs:
-mnemonic:

STURGE:
-Sporadic, port-wine Stain
-Tram track Ca2+ (opposing gyri)
-Unilateral
-Retardation
-Glaucoma, GNAQ gene
-Epilepsy.

16

Tuberous sclerosis
-Sxs:
-mnemonic?

HAMARTOMAS
-Hamartomas in CNS and skin
-Angiofibromas
-Mitral regurgitation
-Ash-leaf spots
-cardiac Rhabdomyoma
-Tuberous sclerosis
-autosomal dOminant
-Mental retardation
-renal Angiomyolipoma
-Seizures, Shagreen patches

17

Tuberous sclerosis
-inheritance pattern

auto dom.
-must have variable expressivity.

18

Neurofibromatosis type I (von Recklinghausen disease)
-mutation in what gene?
-whats the gene product?
-which chrom?
-inheritance pattern?

-NF1 tumor suppressor gene
-neurofibromin, a negative regulator of Ras
-chrom 17
-

19

Neurofibromatosis type I
-Sxs:

Its a PNS tumor syndrome
-Café-au-lait spots
-Lisch nodules (pigmented iris hamartomas)
-neurofibromas in skin
-optic gliomas
-pheochromocytomas.

20

von Hippel-Lindau disease
-inhertiance pattern?
-which gene?
-which chrom?

-auto dom
-VHL tumor suppressor gene
-chrom 3

21

von Hippel-Lindau disease
-gene products that are over-expressed?

-constitutive expression of HIF (transcription factor) and
activation of angiogenic growth factors.

22

von Hippel-Lindau disease

-Cavernous hemangiomas in skin, mucosa, organs
-bilateral renal cell carcinomas
-hemangioblastoma in retina, brain stem, cerebellum
-pheochromocytomas.

23

do meningiomas stain for GFAP?

no

24

butterfly glioma =?

glioblastoma multiforme

25

“Pseudopalisading” pleomorphic tumor cells—border central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage.
-which tumor?

glioblastoma multiforme

26

meningioma
-typically found where?
-tumor of what cell?

-near the surface of brain & parasagittal.
-arachnoid cell.

27

Spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern; psammoma bodies.
-which tumor?

meningioma

28

new-onset seizures in adult female
-imaging shows mass attached to the dura

meningioma

29

Hemangioblastoma
-child or adult?
-cerebral or cerebellar?

-adult
-cerebellar

30

Cerebellar hemangioblastoma w/retinal angiomas
-what disease?

VHL