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Flashcards in 4/1 micro Deck (187)
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1
Q

Giardia lamblia

-how does it cause steattorhea?

A
  • inflammation and villous atrophy of the small bowel/gut.
  • adheres to intestinal brush border and releases molecules that induce a mucosal inflammatory response.
  • causes injury to duodenal and jejunal mucosa.
2
Q

Giardia lamblia

  • major immune response against it?
  • which pts at inc. risk?
A
  • CD4 & IgA

- Bruton’s agamma, CVID, & IgA deficient pts

3
Q

Entamoeba histolytica

-what can it cause?

A
  • bloody diarrhea, liver abscess (“anchovy paste”exudate)

- RUQ pain (histology shows flask-shaped ulcer if submucosal abscess of colon ruptures).

4
Q

Entamoeba histolytica: Dx:

  • what will biopsy show?
  • what will stool show?
A
  • biopsy: trophozoites (with RBCs in the cytoplasm).
  • stool: cysts (with up to 4 nuclei).

*also serology

5
Q

Entamoeba histolytica: Tx

  • for symptomatic pts:
  • for asymptomatic cyst passers:
A
  • Metronidazole

- iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers.

6
Q

Cryptosporidium

-how does it stain?

A

acid fast

7
Q

Cryptosporidium

-Tx:

A
  • Prevention (by filtering city water supplies)

- nitazoxanide in immunocompetent hosts.

8
Q

nitazoxanide

-used for what?

A

To treat Cryptosporidium in immunocompromised hosts.

9
Q

Congenital toxoplasmosis

  • classic triad:
  • mnemonic:
A
  • CHIC

- Chorioretinitis, Hydrocephalus, Intracraniel Calcification.

10
Q

Choroid of eye

-what is it?

A

The vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissue, and lying between the retina and the sclera.

11
Q

toxoplasmosis

-how to Dx?

A

-Serology, biopsy (tachyzoite).

12
Q

toxoplasmosis

-Tx:

A

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

13
Q

Congenital toxoplasmosis

-how will baby present?

A

-pregnant pts, baby can have hydrocephaly, progressive blindness. Also, baby can be born asymptomatic but by their late teenage years, can start to lose vision.

14
Q

Cryptosporidium & T. gondii

-what is our defense against them?

A

They’re intracellular, so CD8.

15
Q

Naegleria fowleri

  • Dx:
  • Tx:
A
  • Amoebas in spinal fluid.

- Amphotericin B - although most pts die.

16
Q

Trypanosoma brucei

-what does it cause?

A

African sleeping sickness: enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever (due to antigenic variation), somnolence, coma.

17
Q

Trypanosoma brucei

  • transmission?
  • how is its vector different than chagas?
A
  • Tsetse fly, a painful bite.

- Chagas caused by reduvid bug = painless bite.

18
Q

Trypanosoma brucei

  • Tx:
  • menmonic:
A

“it SURe is nice to go to sleep”; MELAtonin helps w/ sleep”.

  • SURamin for blood-borne disease.
  • MELArsoprol for CNS penetration
19
Q

P. vivax/ovale

  • fever pattern? aka?
  • Tx for dormant form?
A
  • 48 hrs = tertian.
  • dormant form (hypnozoite) in liver = give primaquine.

*test for G6PD def. before starting primaquine.

20
Q

P. falciparum

  • fever pattern?
  • besides fevers, what can it cause?
A
  • irregular fever pattern.

- parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), kidneys, lungs.

21
Q

P. malariae

-fever pattern? aka?

A

-72-hr cycle (quartan).

22
Q

Malaria

-Dx:

A

Blood smear:

  • trophozoite ring form within RBC.
  • schizont containing merozoites.
23
Q

chloroquine

-how does it treat malaria?

A

Blocks Plasmodium heme polymerase.

24
Q

Malaria

  • 1st line Tx:
  • what if their resistant to first line:
A
  • begin with chloroquine.

- if resistant, use mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil.

25
Q

Malaria

-if life threatening: treat w/what?

A

-use IV quinidine (test for G6PD deficiency).

26
Q

Vivax/ovale

-what do you have to add to the Tx?

A

-add primaquine for hypnozoite (test for G6PD deficiency).

27
Q

Babesia

-what will blood smear show?

A

Blood smear, ring form, “Maltese cross”.

28
Q

Babesia

-Tx:

A

Atovaquone + azithromycin.

29
Q

Babesia

-mnemonic:

A

Tetrad = think meiosis = think baby = think babesiosis
Babies are carried in mother = think of coinfection w/Borrelia
-I want an AA baby = atovaquone + azithromycin

30
Q

Trypanosoma cruzi

-mnemonic:

A

Tom Cruise (Cruzi) is a huge ass (megacolon), who is pretty hard to swallow (megaesophagus/achalasia), but he has a big heart (dilated cardiomyopathy) and he knows how to kiss red lips” (transmitted by Reduvid bug, aka kissing bug).

31
Q

Chagas disease:

  • which bug?
  • what does it cause?
A
  • trypanosoma cruzi

- dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus/achalasia; predominantly in South America.

32
Q

Chagas diease

  • common early sign?
  • what type of heart condition can it cause?
A
  • periorbital swelling = common early sign of chagas.

- dilated cardiomyopathy

33
Q

Chagas diease

-Tx:

A

Tom cruise drives a “benz” and gets Nifer botOX.

-Benznidazole or nifurtimox.

34
Q

Leishmania donovani

  • Sxs:
  • mnemonic:
A
  • donovan frankenreiter -> big drinker, big liver and spleen.
  • spiking fevers, pancytopenia.
35
Q

Leishmania donovani

  • Tx:
  • mnemonic:
A

-donovan gets a lot of ASS = Amphotericin b, Sodium Stibogluc.

36
Q

Leishmania donovani

  • vector:
  • mnemonic:
A

-donovan lives on beach = sand = sandfly

37
Q

Leishmania donovani

-what two forms of disease can it cause?

A
  • Visceral infection - MASSIVE splenomegaly.

- Cutaneous infection: ulcerating skin sore at site of the bite. Most will heal spontaneously over a year.

38
Q

Trichomonas vaginalis

  • vaginitis or vaginosis?
  • color of discharge?
  • itching/burning?
A
  • vaginitis
  • greenish discharge
  • yes
39
Q

Trichomonas vaginalis

  • how is the cervix described?
  • Tx:
A
  • Strawberry cervix.

- Metronidazole for patient and partner (prophylaxis).

40
Q

Intestinal Nematode

  • aka?
  • mnemonic?
A
  • Intestinal roundworms

- nematodes are NASA-E (nasty).

41
Q

Intestinal Nematodes

  • name them
  • mnemonic
A
  • nematodes are NASA-E (nasty).
  • Necator americanus
  • Ancylostoma duodenate
  • Strongyloides stercoralis
  • Ascaris lumbricoides
  • Enterobius vermicularis
42
Q

Intestinal Nematodes

  • Tx? mnemonic?
  • exception?
A

Worms BEND, BEND them enough and they break(die).
Bendazoles + pyrantel pamoate
-except strongyloides = ivermectin.

43
Q

Tissue nematodes

  • aka?
  • mnemonic?
A
  • tissue roundworms

- TOWL

44
Q

Tissue nematodes

  • name them
  • mnemonic
A

TOWL

  • toxocara canis
  • onchocerca volvulus
  • wucheria bancrofti
  • Loa Loa
45
Q

Cestodes

  • aka?
  • menmonic?
A
  • tapeworms

- TED’s tape

46
Q

Cestodes

  • name them
  • mnemonic
A

TED’s tape

  • Taenia saginatum/solium
  • Echinococcus graunlosis
  • Diphyllobothrium latum
47
Q

Cestodes + trematodes

  • Tx?
  • exception:
A
  • praziquantel

- except echinococcus granulosis = albendazole.

48
Q

Trematodes

  • aka? aka?
  • mnemonic?
A
  • flukes = flatworms

- SS fluke

49
Q

Trematodes

  • name them
  • mnemonic
A

SS fluke

  • schistosoma
  • clonorchis sinensis
50
Q

Enterobius vermicularis

  • aka?
  • menmonic:
  • Tx:
A
  • pinworm
  • verm = worm, aris = anus.
  • the scotch tape worm.
  • Tx: bendazole or pyrantel pamoate.
51
Q

Ascaris lumbricoides

  • aka
  • connection w/intermitten RUQ pain?
  • Tx:
A
  • giant roundworm
  • can invade biliary tree & lead to brown pigment stones.
  • Tx: bendazole or pyrantel pamoate.
52
Q

Strongyloides stercoralis

  • transmission?
  • what kind of pain can it cause?
  • Tx:
A
  • Larvae in soil penetrate the skin.
  • PUD-like epigastric pain.
  • Tx: ivermectin or albendazole.
  • can also cause pneumonia during their path to the intestines.
53
Q

How do larvae that penetrate your skin make it to your GI tract?

A
  • Infectious (filariform) larvae penetrate the skin of feet, enter bloodstream, & transported to lungs. The larvae enter alveoli & ascend toward trachea, causing respiratory tract inflammation (can manifest as pneumonia).
  • Larvae pass from the trachea to pharynx, & when swallowed the larvae mature into adults in s. intestines to attach to the mucosa.
  • Initially causes gastroenteritis, but secretion of anticoagulant and consumption of blood results in anemia.
  • Adults mate in the lumen of the intestine, allowing eggs to be shed in the feces.
54
Q

immune response against invasive helminths?

A

Eonsinophils

55
Q

Invasive intestinal helminths:

-what kind of immune response?

A
  • invasive ones = strongyloides, ancylostoma, necator.

- eosinophillic response.

56
Q

Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus

  • aka?
  • transmission?
  • main Sx?
A
  • hookworms
  • Larvae penetrate skin.
  • microcytic anemia, they suck your blood.
  • can also cause pneumonia during their path to the intestines.
57
Q

Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus

-Tx:

A

-bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate.

58
Q

Onchocerca volvulus

  • what class?
  • transmission?
  • mnemonic?
A
  • tissue nematode
  • Female blackfly bite
  • “ochocinco” is black = blackfly bite, black skin nodules, “black sight”. He does NOT swim in the river!
59
Q

Onchocerca volvulus

  • Tx:
  • mnemonic:
A

-Ivermectin (ivermectin for river blindness).

60
Q

river blindness

-cause?

A

Onchocerca volvulus

61
Q

Loa loa

  • what class?
  • transmission?
A
  • tissue nematode.

- Deer fly, horse fly, mango fly.

62
Q

Loa loa

-what it cause?

A

Swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva.

-does NOT cause blindness.

63
Q

Onchocerca volvulus vs Loa loa

-which one can cause blindness?

A

Onchocerca volvulus.

64
Q

Loa loa & Wuchereria bancrofti

-Tx:

A

Diethylcarbamazine

65
Q

Diethylcarbamazine

-what is it?

A

Tx for Loa loa & Wuchereria bancrofti.

66
Q

Nematodes

  • Ingested:
  • mnemonic:
A

You’ll get sick if you EAT these!

-Enterobius, Ascaris, Toxocara

67
Q

Nematodes

-cutaneous:

A

These get into your feet from the SANd.

-Strongyloides, Ancylostoma, Necator.

68
Q

Nematodes

-Bite:

A

Lay LOW to avoid getting bitten.

-Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti.

69
Q

Taenia solium

  • what class?
  • aka?
A
  • Tapeworm = cestode

- pork tapeworm.

70
Q

Taenia solium

  • What do you consume to become definitive host?
  • what do you consume to become intermediate host?
A
  • larvae from pork => definitive host.

- eggs from fecal-oral => intermediate.

71
Q

Taenia solium:

  • definitive host => which Sxs
  • intermediate host => which Sxs
A
  • definitive host => intestinal infection + poop out eggs.

- intermediate host => cysticercosis/neurocysticercosis.

72
Q

Taenia solium

  • Tx for intestinal infection:
  • Tx for neurocysticercosis:
A
  • praziquantel for intestinal

- albendazole for neurocysticercosis

73
Q

Diphyllobothrium latum

  • what class?
  • aka?
A
  • cestode = tapeworm.

- fish tapeworm.

74
Q

Diphyllobothrium latum

-transmission?

A

Ingestion of larvae from raw freshwater fish.

75
Q

Diphyllobothrium latum

  • what it cause?
  • Tx:
A

-Vitamin B12 deficiency (tapeworm competes for B12
in intestine) => megaloblastic anemia.
-praziquantel.

76
Q

Echinococcus granulosus

  • whats the definitive host?
  • whats the intermediate host?
A
  • Definitive host = dog

- Intermediate hosts = sheep & human.

77
Q

Eat larvae you become which type of host?

A

definitive host

-larvae can mature into adults.

78
Q

Eat eggs you become which type of host?

A

intermediate host

-eggs can hatch into larvae, but larvae can not mature into adults.

79
Q

Echinococcus granulosus

  • what class?
  • how do you get it?
  • will you be definitive or intermediate host?
A
  • cestodes = tapeworm
  • Ingestion of eggs from dog feces.
  • intermediate host.
80
Q

Echinococcus granulosus

  • Sxs:
  • Tx:
A

-Hydatid cysts in liver, causing anaphylaxis if antigens
released (surgeons preinject with ethanol to kill cysts
before removal).
-albendazole.

81
Q

trematode

-aka? aka?

A

-fluke, flatworm.

82
Q

Cestodes

-what do you usually find in stool?

A

Find proglottids in stool.

83
Q

Trematodes

-what do you usually find in stool?

A

Eggs

84
Q

Schistosoma

  • what class?
  • what is the host?
  • transmission?
A
  • trematode = fluke = flatworm.
  • snails = intermediate host.
  • cercariae penetrate skin of humans.
85
Q

Schistosoma

-what does it cause?

A

-Liver and spleen granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammation.
*Chronic infection with S. haematobium can lead to
SCC of the bladder (painless hematuria).

86
Q

Schistosoma

-which species can lead to which type of cancer?

A

Chronic infection with S. haematobium can lead to SCC of the bladder (painless hematuria).

*HEMAtobium can cause painless HEMAturia.

87
Q

Schistosoma manSoni vs hemaTobium

-difference in appearance?

A
  • mansoni has a sub-terminal spine.

- hematobium has a terminal spine.

88
Q

Schistosoma

-how to Dx?

A

Find eggs in stool.

89
Q

Clonorchis sinensis

  • what class?
  • aka?
  • how do you get it?
A
  • Trematode = fluke = flatworm.
  • Chinese Liver fluke.
  • Undercooked fish

*dont confuse w/ochocirca thats River blindness.

90
Q

Clonorchis sinensis

-mnemonic:

A

-Clo = “Col” = cholangiocarcinoma. SIN = one of seven
deadly sins is gluttony, and you need a gallbladder
to digest all that fat.

91
Q

Clonorchis sinensis

-what can it cause?

A
  • Biliary tract inflammation =>Ž pigmented gallstones.

- Associated with cholangiocarcinoma.

92
Q

Clonorchis sinensis

-how does it cause brown pigment stones?

A

Can invade biliary tree & lead to inc. in beta-glucoronidase which unconjugates bili = brown pigment stones.

93
Q

Clonorchis sinensis

-whats unique about its egg?

A

The egg has an operculum aka a lid.

94
Q

Clonorchis sinensis

-Tx:

A

praziquantel.

95
Q

Which helminths can cause microcytic anemia?

A
  • Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus

(hookworms) .

96
Q

How do naked viruses exit their host cell?

A

They lyse the cell. If they blebbed off, then they would be enveloped.

97
Q

What does “naked” virus mean?

  • does it have envelope?
  • does it have capsid?
A
  • naked = no envelope (lipid bilayer).

- yes, it can still have a capsid.

98
Q

What are the two types of capsids?

A

Icosahedral and helical.

99
Q

Helical capsid viruses

-what do they all have in common?

A

There are no naked viruses w/a helical capsid.

-so all viruses w/helical capsules have envelopes.

100
Q

If a virus is can get past the stomach acidity, what characteristic must it have?

A

Must be a naked virus!

-so by definition it can NOT have a helical capsid!

101
Q

Viral capsids

-what are they made of?

A

Protein

102
Q

Location of envelope w/relation to viral capsid:

A

the envelope is OUTSIDE of the capsid.

-makes sense b/c when a virus blebs off, takes envelope w/it, so envelope must be the outer most layer.

103
Q

Recombination

-define:

A

Exchange of genes between 2 chromosomes by crossing over within regions of significant base
sequence homology.

104
Q

Reassortment

-happens in what kind of viruses?

A

Those w/segmented genomes: BOAReo

-bunya, orthomyxo, arena, reovirus.

105
Q

Viral Complementation

-define:

A

When 1 of 2 viruses that infect the cell has a mutation that results in a nonfunctional protein. The nonmutated virus “complements” the mutated one by making a functional protein that serves both viruses.

106
Q

Viral: Phenotypic mixing

-define:

A

-Occurs with simultaneous infection of a cell with 2 viruses.
-Genome of virus A can be partially or completely coated (forming pseudovirion) with the surface proteins of virus B.
-Type B protein coat determines the tropism (infectivity) of the hybrid virus. However, the progeny from this
infection have a type A coat that is encoded by its type A genetic material.

107
Q

Live attenuated vaccines

  • do you need boosters?
  • mnemonic?
A
-no booster needed.
MIS SYC Live!
M=MMR
I=influenza (intranasal)
S=Sabin polio
S=smallpox
Y=yellow fever
C=chickenpox
108
Q

Killed vaccines

-mnemonic?

A

RIP Always.

  • Rabies
  • Influenza (injected)
  • Salk Polio
  • HAV vaccines.
109
Q

Infleunza vaccine

-which one is killed virus - injected or intranasal?

A

Injected = killed vaccine.

-you wouldn’t want to inject a live attenuated (no real reason, just a mnemonic).

110
Q

Recombinant vaccines: name them

A
  • HBV (antigen = recombinant HBsAg)

- HPV (types 6, 11, 16, and 18).

111
Q

DNA viruses

-all = linear, except these, which circular:

A

papilloma-, polyoma-, and hepadnaviruses.

112
Q

Only dsRNA virus:

A

Reovirus (rotavirus)

113
Q

Positive-stranded RNA viruses:

-mnemonic:

A

I went to a retro (retrovirus) toga (togavirus) party,
where I drank flavored (flavivirus) Corona (coronavirus) and ate hippy (hepevirus) California (calicivirus) pickles (picornavirus).

114
Q

Negative strand RNA virus

-what must it carry with it?

A

Is complementary to mRNAso needs to be converted to positive strand by RNA dep. RNA polymerase (they must carry gene for this b/c human cells dont have it).

115
Q

Purified nucleic acids of most dsDNA and (+) strand ssRNA (≈ mRNA) viruses are infectious.
-exceptions:

A

-except poxviruses and HBV.

116
Q

Are purified nucleic acids of (-) sense RNA viruses infectious?

A

No

-they need the RNA-dep RNA pol. thats carried w/in the complete virion.

117
Q

Viral replication: locations:

  • DNA viruses:
  • RNA viruses:
A
  • DNA viruses = Replicate in the nucleus except poxvirus.

- RNA viruses = Replicate in the cytoplasm (except influenza virus and retroviruses).

118
Q

Which DNA viruses do NOT replicate in the nucleus?

A

poxvirus

*carries own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

119
Q

Which RNA viruses do NOT replicate in cytoplasm?

A

Influenza & retroviruses.

120
Q

All enveloped viruses acquire their envelopes from plasma membrane of their host when they exit.
-except:

A

-herpesviruses, which acquire envelopes from

nuclear membrane.

121
Q

Naked viruses

-mnemonic:

A

Give PAPP smears and CPR to a naked Heppy

  • P = polyoma
  • A = adeno
  • P = papillo
  • P = parvo
  • C = calici
  • P = picorna
  • R = reo
  • HepE
122
Q

DNA viruses

-mnemonic:

A

HHAPPPPy

  • Hepadna
  • Herpes
  • Adeno
  • Pox
  • Parvo
  • Papilloma
  • Polyoma
123
Q

hepadnavirus =

A

Hep B

124
Q

All DNA viruses have what type of capsid?

-except which one?

A
  • All DNA = icosahedral

- except poxvirus (poxvirus was also the one that didnt replicate in nucleus).

125
Q

Poxvirus

-how is it unique amongst the DNA viruses?

A
  • does NOT replicate in nucleus.

- does NOT have icosahedral capsid.

126
Q

How are viruses taken into cells?

A

They are endocytosed.

-they hook onto a surface receptor.

127
Q

What protein allows herpesviridae to make multinucleated cells?

A

F protein.

128
Q

common cause of spontaneous temporal lobe encephalitis?

-what will you see on imaging?

A

HSV-1

-hemorrhagic lesions in temporal lobe.

129
Q

HHV-6

  • what family of viruses?
  • what disease does it cause?
A
  • herpes virus

- roseola (exanthem subitum)

130
Q

HHV-7

  • what family of viruses?
  • what disease does it cause?
A
  • herpes virus

- less common cause of roseola

131
Q

Hepadnavirus

  • which hepatitis virus is this?
  • genome made of?
  • which unique enzyme does it have?
A
  • hep B
  • Partially DS and circular
  • Not a retrovirus but has reverse transcriptase.
132
Q

HepB lifecycle

-order of genome events

A

circular partially dsDNA => dsDNA => mRNA + circular, partial dsDNA

133
Q

swimming pool conjuctivitis

-which virus?

A

adenovirus

134
Q

Adenovirus

-what diseases can it cause?

A
  • Febrile pharyngitis—sore throat
  • Acute hemorrhagic cystitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Conjunctivitis—“pink eye”
135
Q

Parvovirus

-Sxs in adults/

A
  • Sx in adults: much more serious but rare b/c we usually get it as kids.
  • Malaise, arthralgias, rash. These symptoms are caused by immune complex deposition aka TYPE 3 HSR.
136
Q

Congenital B19

-how does fetus die?

A

RBC destruction in fetus => hydrops fetalis.

137
Q

Polyomavirus

  • which two viruses in this family?
  • mnemonic for what they cause:
A

“JC: Junky Cerebrum; BK: Bad Kidney”

-JC virus—progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV.
-BK virus—transplant patients, commonly targets
kidney.

138
Q

Smallpox

-will vesicles be in diff stages or all in the same stage?

A

-all in the same stage.

139
Q

HSV-2

-where do they go latent?

A

Sacral ganglia.

140
Q

VZV

-will vesicles be in diff stages or all in the same stage?

A

Different stages.

141
Q

Most common complication of shingles is:

A

post-herpetic neuralgia.

142
Q

CMV

-virus goes latent where?

A

In mononuclear cells.

*EBV invades B cells.

143
Q

CMV causes what type of pneumonia?

A

Interstitial pneumonia in almost all transplant pts from CMV.

144
Q

CMV

-how is it transmitted?

A

-Transmitted congenitally and by transfusion, sexual contact, saliva, urine, transplant.

145
Q

HHV-6

  • what disease does it cause?
  • explain the disease:
  • aka?
A

Roseola: high fevers for several days that can cause seizures, followed by a diffuse macular rash G .

  • Transmitted by saliva.
  • aka exanthem subitum
146
Q

Herpes HSV-1 encephalitis

-how to Dx?

A

CSF PCR for herpes encephalitis.

147
Q

genital herpes

-how to Dx?

A
  • Tzanck test—a smear of an opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells.
  • Infected cells also have intranuclear Cowdry A inclusions.
148
Q

Reoviruses

  • what viruses in this family?
  • whats special about reovirus genome?
A
  • Coltivirusa—Colorado tick fever
  • Rotavirus—#1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children

*dsRNA virus. segmented.

149
Q

1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children

A

Rotavirus (Reovirus).

150
Q

Picornaviruses

  • which viruses in this family?
  • menmonic?
A

PERCH

  • Poliovirus
  • Echovirus—aseptic meningitis
  • Rhinovirus—“common cold”
  • Coxsackievirus
  • HAV
151
Q

Coxsackievirus

-what diseases can it cause?

A

-aseptic meningitis; herpangina (mouth blisters, fever); hand, foot, and mouth disease; myocarditis; pericarditis.

152
Q

Leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in USA

A

Calicivirus (norwalk virus) (norovirus)

153
Q

Caliciviruses

  • which virus is in this family?
  • whats it cause?
  • what setting do people usually get it?
A
  • Norovirus—viral gastroenteritis
  • aka norwalk virus
  • cruiseships!
154
Q

Viral Gastroenteritis on cruiseship:

A

Norovirus = calicivirus

-aka norwalk virus

155
Q

Flaviviruses

-which viruses does this encompass?

A
  • HCV
  • Yellow fever
  • Dengue
  • St. Louis encephalitisa
  • West Nile virusa
156
Q

Yellow fever

-Sxs:

A

-jaundice, GI hemmorhage w/black vomit.

157
Q
  • Most commonly Dx arbovirus in the US:

- Most common arbovirus worldwide:

A
  • West Nile virus = US

- Dengue fever = worldwide

158
Q

Rubella

-which virus family?

A

Togavirus

159
Q

Retroviruses

-which viruses?

A

HTLV—T-cell leukemia

HIV—AIDS

160
Q

Coronaviruses

-whats it cause?

A

Common cold & SARS.

161
Q

Paramyxoviruses

-which viruses?

A
PaRaMyxovirus: 
Parainfluenza—croup 
RSV—bronchiolitis in babies; Rx—ribavirin 
Measles, Mumps
*rubella = togavirus
162
Q

RSV—bronchiolitis in babies

-Tx:

A

ribavirin

163
Q

Bullet-shaped virus

A

rabies virus

164
Q

Filoviruses

-which viruses

A

Ebola/Marburg hemorrhagic fever

165
Q

Ebola

-which virus family?

A

Filovirus

166
Q

Bunyaviruses

-most notable virus in this family?

A

Hantavirus—hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia

167
Q

Picornaviru

-only non-enterovirus in this family?

A

rhinovirus

168
Q

Yellow fever virus

  • transmitted by what?
  • which virus family?
  • Sxs:
A
  • A flavivirus (also an arbovirus) transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
  • high fever, black vomitus, and jaundice.
169
Q

high fever, black vomitus, and jaundice.

-which virus?

A

Flavivirus => yellow fever virus.

170
Q

Yellow fever

  • Liver enzymes profile?
  • what will you see histologically in liver?
A
  • much higher AST than ALT.
  • AST = 900U/l and ALT = 350U/l
  • councilman bodies.
171
Q

Acute diarrhea in the United States during winter,
especially in day-care centers, kindergartens.
-does it cause electrolyte imbalance?

A

Rotavirus

-Villous destruction with atrophy leads to dec.  absorption of Na+ and loss of K+.

172
Q

Highly sensitive way to rule out asthma?

A

Methacholine challenge.

173
Q

subperiosteal hematoma

-secondary to deficiency of what?

A

vitamin C.

174
Q

Friedrich ataxia

-can lead to which heart condition?

A

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

175
Q

Grey, subretinal membrane in old person losing vision.

  • what disease?
  • whats the Tx?
A

Age related macular degeneration.

-anti-VEGF.

176
Q

Inulin

  • used to estimate what?
  • mnemonic:
A

GFR

-creatinine = inulin = GFR: CIG.

177
Q

Spongiosis

  • definition:
  • seen in which diseases:
A

Epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in intercellular spaces.
-seen in eczematous dermatitis: all the diseases in this umbrella term.

178
Q

Influenza

  • function of hemagglutinin:
  • function of neuraminidase:
A
  • hemagglutinin = promotes viral entry.

- neuraminidase = promotes progeny virion release.

179
Q

What kind of Abs and against what antigen give you immunity against influenza reinfection?

A

Circulating Abs against HA = immunity against
reinfection from influenza.
-IgG & IgA.

180
Q

Antigenic shift only possible in which type of influenza?

-why?

A
  • Type A influenza virus.

- bc type A can infect humans or animals.

181
Q

Influenza pandemic caused by drift or shift?

A
  • Shift = worse = pandemic.

- Drift = epidemic.

182
Q

RNA pol doesn’t have which capability?

A

RNA polymerase does NOT have proofreading capability!

183
Q

Anastrozole

  • whats it do?
  • what other drug has same mech?
A
  • aromatase inhibitor

- exemestane.

184
Q

Filtration fraction: inc or dec in hypovolemia?

A
  • inc.

- bc RPF drops more so than GFR.

185
Q

pertechnetate study

-used to Dx what disease?

A

Finds gastric mucosa in meckels diverticulum.

186
Q

Which 2 terminal nerves come off posterior chord?

A

radial & axillary n.

187
Q

scaphoid

-side of radius or ulna?

A

radius