4/1 micro Flashcards Preview

Final FA review > 4/1 micro > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4/1 micro Deck (187):
1

Giardia lamblia
-how does it cause steattorhea?

-inflammation and villous atrophy of the small bowel/gut.
-adheres to intestinal brush border and releases molecules that induce a mucosal inflammatory response.
-causes injury to duodenal and jejunal mucosa.

2

Giardia lamblia
-major immune response against it?
-which pts at inc. risk?

-CD4 & IgA
-Bruton's agamma, CVID, & IgA deficient pts

3

Entamoeba histolytica
-what can it cause?

-bloody diarrhea, liver abscess (“anchovy paste”exudate)
-RUQ pain (histology shows flask-shaped ulcer if submucosal abscess of colon ruptures).

4

Entamoeba histolytica: Dx:
-what will biopsy show?
-what will stool show?

-biopsy: trophozoites (with RBCs in the cytoplasm).
-stool: cysts (with up to 4 nuclei).

*also serology

5

Entamoeba histolytica: Tx
-for symptomatic pts:
-for asymptomatic cyst passers:

-Metronidazole
-iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers.

6

Cryptosporidium
-how does it stain?

acid fast

7

Cryptosporidium
-Tx:

-Prevention (by filtering city water supplies)
-nitazoxanide in immunocompetent hosts.

8

nitazoxanide
-used for what?

To treat Cryptosporidium in immunocompromised hosts.

9

Congenital toxoplasmosis
-classic triad:
-mnemonic:

-CHIC
-Chorioretinitis, Hydrocephalus, Intracraniel Calcification.

10

Choroid of eye
-what is it?

The vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissue, and lying between the retina and the sclera.

11

toxoplasmosis
-how to Dx?

-Serology, biopsy (tachyzoite).

12

toxoplasmosis
-Tx:

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

13

Congenital toxoplasmosis
-how will baby present?

-pregnant pts, baby can have hydrocephaly, progressive blindness. Also, baby can be born asymptomatic but by their late teenage years, can start to lose vision.

14

Cryptosporidium & T. gondii
-what is our defense against them?

They're intracellular, so CD8.

15

Naegleria fowleri
-Dx:
-Tx:

-Amoebas in spinal fluid.
-Amphotericin B - although most pts die.

16

Trypanosoma brucei
-what does it cause?

African sleeping sickness: enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever (due to antigenic variation), somnolence, coma.

17

Trypanosoma brucei
-transmission?
-how is its vector different than chagas?

-Tsetse fly, a painful bite.
-Chagas caused by reduvid bug = painless bite.

18

Trypanosoma brucei
-Tx:
-menmonic:

“it SURe is nice to go to sleep”; MELAtonin helps w/ sleep".
-SURamin for blood-borne disease.
-MELArsoprol for CNS penetration

19

P. vivax/ovale
-fever pattern? aka?
-Tx for dormant form?

-48 hrs = tertian.
-dormant form (hypnozoite) in liver = give primaquine.

*test for G6PD def. before starting primaquine.

20

P. falciparum
-fever pattern?
-besides fevers, what can it cause?

-irregular fever pattern.
-parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), kidneys, lungs.

21

P. malariae
-fever pattern? aka?

-72-hr cycle (quartan).

22

Malaria
-Dx:

Blood smear:
-trophozoite ring form within RBC.
-schizont containing merozoites.

23

chloroquine
-how does it treat malaria?

Blocks Plasmodium heme polymerase.

24

Malaria
-1st line Tx:
-what if their resistant to first line:

-begin with chloroquine.
-if resistant, use mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil.

25

Malaria
-if life threatening: treat w/what?

-use IV quinidine (test for G6PD deficiency).

26

Vivax/ovale
-what do you have to add to the Tx?

-add primaquine for hypnozoite (test for G6PD deficiency).

27

Babesia
-what will blood smear show?

Blood smear, ring form, “Maltese cross”.

28

Babesia
-Tx:

Atovaquone + azithromycin.

29

Babesia
-mnemonic:

Tetrad = think meiosis = think baby = think babesiosis
Babies are carried in mother = think of coinfection w/Borrelia
-I want an AA baby = atovaquone + azithromycin

30

Trypanosoma cruzi
-mnemonic:

Tom Cruise (Cruzi) is a huge ass (megacolon), who is pretty hard to swallow (megaesophagus/achalasia), but he has a big heart (dilated cardiomyopathy) and he knows how to kiss red lips" (transmitted by Reduvid bug, aka kissing bug).

31

Chagas disease:
-which bug?
-what does it cause?

-trypanosoma cruzi
-dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus/achalasia; predominantly in South America.

32

Chagas diease
-common early sign?
-what type of heart condition can it cause?

-periorbital swelling = common early sign of chagas.
-dilated cardiomyopathy

33

Chagas diease
-Tx:

Tom cruise drives a "benz" and gets Nifer botOX.
-Benznidazole or nifurtimox.

34

Leishmania donovani
-Sxs:
-mnemonic:

-donovan frankenreiter -> big drinker, big liver and spleen.
-spiking fevers, pancytopenia.

35

Leishmania donovani
-Tx:
-mnemonic:

-donovan gets a lot of ASS = Amphotericin b, Sodium Stibogluc.

36

Leishmania donovani
-vector:
-mnemonic:

-donovan lives on beach = sand = sandfly

37

Leishmania donovani
-what two forms of disease can it cause?

-Visceral infection - MASSIVE splenomegaly.
-Cutaneous infection: ulcerating skin sore at site of the bite. Most will heal spontaneously over a year.

38

Trichomonas vaginalis
-vaginitis or vaginosis?
-color of discharge?
-itching/burning?

-vaginitis
-greenish discharge
-yes

39

Trichomonas vaginalis
-how is the cervix described?
-Tx:

-Strawberry cervix.
-Metronidazole for patient and partner (prophylaxis).

40

Intestinal Nematode
-aka?
-mnemonic?

-Intestinal roundworms
-nematodes are NASA-E (nasty).

41

Intestinal Nematodes
-name them
-mnemonic

-nematodes are NASA-E (nasty).
-Necator americanus
-Ancylostoma duodenate
-Strongyloides stercoralis
-Ascaris lumbricoides
-Enterobius vermicularis

42

Intestinal Nematodes
-Tx? mnemonic?
-exception?

Worms BEND, BEND them enough and they break(die).
Bendazoles + pyrantel pamoate
-except strongyloides = ivermectin.

43

Tissue nematodes
-aka?
-mnemonic?

-tissue roundworms
-TOWL

44

Tissue nematodes
-name them
-mnemonic

TOWL
-toxocara canis
-onchocerca volvulus
-wucheria bancrofti
-Loa Loa

45

Cestodes
-aka?
-menmonic?

-tapeworms
-TED's tape

46

Cestodes
-name them
-mnemonic

TED's tape
-Taenia saginatum/solium
-Echinococcus graunlosis
-Diphyllobothrium latum

47

Cestodes + trematodes
-Tx?
-exception:

-praziquantel
-except echinococcus granulosis = albendazole.

48

Trematodes
-aka? aka?
-mnemonic?

-flukes = flatworms
-SS fluke

49

Trematodes
-name them
-mnemonic

SS fluke
-schistosoma
-clonorchis sinensis

50

Enterobius vermicularis
-aka?
-menmonic:
-Tx:

-pinworm
-verm = worm, aris = anus.
-the scotch tape worm.
-Tx: bendazole or pyrantel pamoate.

51

Ascaris lumbricoides
-aka
-connection w/intermitten RUQ pain?
-Tx:

-giant roundworm
-can invade biliary tree & lead to brown pigment stones.
-Tx: bendazole or pyrantel pamoate.

52

Strongyloides stercoralis
-transmission?
-what kind of pain can it cause?
-Tx:

-Larvae in soil penetrate the skin.
-PUD-like epigastric pain.
-Tx: ivermectin or albendazole.
-can also cause pneumonia during their path to the intestines.

53

How do larvae that penetrate your skin make it to your GI tract?

-Infectious (filariform) larvae penetrate the skin of feet, enter bloodstream, & transported to lungs. The larvae enter alveoli & ascend toward trachea, causing respiratory tract inflammation (can manifest as pneumonia).
-Larvae pass from the trachea to pharynx, & when swallowed the larvae mature into adults in s. intestines to attach to the mucosa.
-Initially causes gastroenteritis, but secretion of anticoagulant and consumption of blood results in anemia.
-Adults mate in the lumen of the intestine, allowing eggs to be shed in the feces.

54

immune response against invasive helminths?

Eonsinophils

55

Invasive intestinal helminths:
-what kind of immune response?

-invasive ones = strongyloides, ancylostoma, necator.
-eosinophillic response.

56

Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus
-aka?
-transmission?
-main Sx?

-hookworms
-Larvae penetrate skin.
-microcytic anemia, they suck your blood.
-can also cause pneumonia during their path to the intestines.

57

Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus
-Tx:

-bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate.

58

Onchocerca volvulus
-what class?
-transmission?
-mnemonic?

-tissue nematode
-Female blackfly bite
-"ochocinco" is black = blackfly bite, black skin nodules, “black sight”. He does NOT swim in the river!

59

Onchocerca volvulus
-Tx:
-mnemonic:

-Ivermectin (ivermectin for river blindness).

60

river blindness
-cause?

Onchocerca volvulus

61

Loa loa
-what class?
-transmission?

-tissue nematode.
-Deer fly, horse fly, mango fly.

62

Loa loa
-what it cause?

Swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva.
-does NOT cause blindness.

63

Onchocerca volvulus vs Loa loa
-which one can cause blindness?

Onchocerca volvulus.

64

Loa loa & Wuchereria bancrofti
-Tx:

Diethylcarbamazine

65

Diethylcarbamazine
-what is it?

Tx for Loa loa & Wuchereria bancrofti.

66

Nematodes
-Ingested:
-mnemonic:

You’ll get sick if you EAT these!
-Enterobius, Ascaris, Toxocara

67

Nematodes
-cutaneous:

These get into your feet from the SANd.
-Strongyloides, Ancylostoma, Necator.

68

Nematodes
-Bite:

Lay LOW to avoid getting bitten.
-Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti.

69

Taenia solium
-what class?
-aka?

-Tapeworm = cestode
-pork tapeworm.

70

Taenia solium
-What do you consume to become definitive host?
-what do you consume to become intermediate host?

-larvae from pork => definitive host.
-eggs from fecal-oral => intermediate.

71

Taenia solium:
-definitive host => which Sxs
-intermediate host => which Sxs

-definitive host => intestinal infection + poop out eggs.
-intermediate host => cysticercosis/neurocysticercosis.

72

Taenia solium
-Tx for intestinal infection:
-Tx for neurocysticercosis:

-praziquantel for intestinal
-albendazole for neurocysticercosis

73

Diphyllobothrium latum
-what class?
-aka?

-cestode = tapeworm.
-fish tapeworm.

74

Diphyllobothrium latum
-transmission?

Ingestion of larvae from raw freshwater fish.

75

Diphyllobothrium latum
-what it cause?
-Tx:

-Vitamin B12 deficiency (tapeworm competes for B12
in intestine) => megaloblastic anemia.
-praziquantel.

76

Echinococcus granulosus
-whats the definitive host?
-whats the intermediate host?

-Definitive host = dog
-Intermediate hosts = sheep & human.

77

Eat larvae you become which type of host?

definitive host
-larvae can mature into adults.

78

Eat eggs you become which type of host?

intermediate host
-eggs can hatch into larvae, but larvae can not mature into adults.

79

Echinococcus granulosus
-what class?
-how do you get it?
-will you be definitive or intermediate host?

-cestodes = tapeworm
-Ingestion of eggs from dog feces.
-intermediate host.

80

Echinococcus granulosus
-Sxs:
-Tx:

-Hydatid cysts in liver, causing anaphylaxis if antigens
released (surgeons preinject with ethanol to kill cysts
before removal).
-albendazole.

81

trematode
-aka? aka?

-fluke, flatworm.

82

Cestodes
-what do you usually find in stool?

Find proglottids in stool.

83

Trematodes
-what do you usually find in stool?

Eggs

84

Schistosoma
-what class?
-what is the host?
-transmission?

-trematode = fluke = flatworm.
-snails = intermediate host.
-cercariae penetrate skin of humans.

85

Schistosoma
-what does it cause?

-Liver and spleen granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammation.
*Chronic infection with S. haematobium can lead to
SCC of the bladder (painless hematuria).

86

Schistosoma
-which species can lead to which type of cancer?

Chronic infection with S. haematobium can lead to SCC of the bladder (painless hematuria).

*HEMAtobium can cause painless HEMAturia.

87

Schistosoma manSoni vs hemaTobium
-difference in appearance?

-mansoni has a sub-terminal spine.
-hematobium has a terminal spine.

88

Schistosoma
-how to Dx?

Find eggs in stool.

89

Clonorchis sinensis
-what class?
-aka?
-how do you get it?

-Trematode = fluke = flatworm.
-Chinese Liver fluke.
-Undercooked fish

*dont confuse w/ochocirca thats River blindness.

90

Clonorchis sinensis
-mnemonic:

-Clo = "Col" = cholangiocarcinoma. SIN = one of seven
deadly sins is gluttony, and you need a gallbladder
to digest all that fat.

91

Clonorchis sinensis
-what can it cause?

-Biliary tract inflammation =>Ž pigmented gallstones.
-Associated with cholangiocarcinoma.

92

Clonorchis sinensis
-how does it cause brown pigment stones?

Can invade biliary tree & lead to inc. in beta-glucoronidase which unconjugates bili = brown pigment stones.

93

Clonorchis sinensis
-whats unique about its egg?

The egg has an operculum aka a lid.

94

Clonorchis sinensis
-Tx:

praziquantel.

95

Which helminths can cause microcytic anemia?

-Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus
(hookworms).

96

How do naked viruses exit their host cell?

They lyse the cell. If they blebbed off, then they would be enveloped.

97

What does "naked" virus mean?
-does it have envelope?
-does it have capsid?

-naked = no envelope (lipid bilayer).
-yes, it can still have a capsid.

98

What are the two types of capsids?

Icosahedral and helical.

99

Helical capsid viruses
-what do they all have in common?

There are no naked viruses w/a helical capsid.
-so all viruses w/helical capsules have envelopes.

100

If a virus is can get past the stomach acidity, what characteristic must it have?

Must be a naked virus!
-so by definition it can NOT have a helical capsid!

101

Viral capsids
-what are they made of?

Protein

102

Location of envelope w/relation to viral capsid:

the envelope is OUTSIDE of the capsid.
-makes sense b/c when a virus blebs off, takes envelope w/it, so envelope must be the outer most layer.

103

Recombination
-define:

Exchange of genes between 2 chromosomes by crossing over within regions of significant base
sequence homology.

104

Reassortment
-happens in what kind of viruses?

Those w/segmented genomes: BOAReo
-bunya, orthomyxo, arena, reovirus.

105

Viral Complementation
-define:

When 1 of 2 viruses that infect the cell has a mutation that results in a nonfunctional protein. The nonmutated virus “complements” the mutated one by making a functional protein that serves both viruses.

106

Viral: Phenotypic mixing
-define:

-Occurs with simultaneous infection of a cell with 2 viruses.
-Genome of virus A can be partially or completely coated (forming pseudovirion) with the surface proteins of virus B.
-Type B protein coat determines the tropism (infectivity) of the hybrid virus. However, the progeny from this
infection have a type A coat that is encoded by its type A genetic material.

107

Live attenuated vaccines
-do you need boosters?
-mnemonic?

-no booster needed.
MIS SYC Live!
M=MMR
I=influenza (intranasal)
S=Sabin polio
S=smallpox
Y=yellow fever
C=chickenpox

108

Killed vaccines
-mnemonic?

RIP Always.
-Rabies
-Influenza (injected)
-Salk Polio
-HAV vaccines.

109

Infleunza vaccine
-which one is killed virus - injected or intranasal?

Injected = killed vaccine.
-you wouldn't want to inject a live attenuated (no real reason, just a mnemonic).

110

Recombinant vaccines: name them

-HBV (antigen = recombinant HBsAg)
-HPV (types 6, 11, 16, and 18).

111

DNA viruses
-all = linear, except these, which circular:

papilloma-, polyoma-, and hepadnaviruses.

112

Only dsRNA virus:

Reovirus (rotavirus)

113

Positive-stranded RNA viruses:
-mnemonic:

I went to a retro (retrovirus) toga (togavirus) party,
where I drank flavored (flavivirus) Corona (coronavirus) and ate hippy (hepevirus) California (calicivirus) pickles (picornavirus).

114

Negative strand RNA virus
-what must it carry with it?

Is complementary to mRNAso needs to be converted to positive strand by RNA dep. RNA polymerase (they must carry gene for this b/c human cells dont have it).

115

Purified nucleic acids of most dsDNA and (+) strand ssRNA (≈ mRNA) viruses are infectious.
-exceptions:

-except poxviruses and HBV.

116

Are purified nucleic acids of (-) sense RNA viruses infectious?

No
-they need the RNA-dep RNA pol. thats carried w/in the complete virion.

117

Viral replication: locations:
-DNA viruses:
-RNA viruses:

-DNA viruses = Replicate in the nucleus except poxvirus.
-RNA viruses = Replicate in the cytoplasm (except influenza virus and retroviruses).

118

Which DNA viruses do NOT replicate in the nucleus?

poxvirus
*carries own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

119

Which RNA viruses do NOT replicate in cytoplasm?

Influenza & retroviruses.

120

All enveloped viruses acquire their envelopes from plasma membrane of their host when they exit.
-except:

-herpesviruses, which acquire envelopes from
nuclear membrane.

121

Naked viruses
-mnemonic:

Give PAPP smears and CPR to a naked Heppy
-P = polyoma
-A = adeno
-P = papillo
-P = parvo
-C = calici
-P = picorna
-R = reo
-HepE

122

DNA viruses
-mnemonic:

HHAPPPPy
-Hepadna
-Herpes
-Adeno
-Pox
-Parvo
-Papilloma
-Polyoma

123

hepadnavirus =

Hep B

124

All DNA viruses have what type of capsid?
-except which one?

-All DNA = icosahedral
-except poxvirus (poxvirus was also the one that didnt replicate in nucleus).

125

Poxvirus
-how is it unique amongst the DNA viruses?

-does NOT replicate in nucleus.
-does NOT have icosahedral capsid.

126

How are viruses taken into cells?

They are endocytosed.
-they hook onto a surface receptor.

127

What protein allows herpesviridae to make multinucleated cells?

F protein.

128

common cause of spontaneous temporal lobe encephalitis?
-what will you see on imaging?

HSV-1
-hemorrhagic lesions in temporal lobe.

129

HHV-6
-what family of viruses?
-what disease does it cause?

-herpes virus
-roseola (exanthem subitum)

130

HHV-7
-what family of viruses?
-what disease does it cause?

-herpes virus
-less common cause of roseola

131

Hepadnavirus
-which hepatitis virus is this?
-genome made of?
-which unique enzyme does it have?

-hep B
-Partially DS and circular
-Not a retrovirus but has reverse transcriptase.

132

HepB lifecycle
-order of genome events

circular partially dsDNA => dsDNA => mRNA + circular, partial dsDNA

133

swimming pool conjuctivitis
-which virus?

adenovirus

134

Adenovirus
-what diseases can it cause?

-Febrile pharyngitis—sore throat
-Acute hemorrhagic cystitis
-Pneumonia
-Conjunctivitis—“pink eye”

135

Parvovirus
-Sxs in adults/

-Sx in adults: much more serious but rare b/c we usually get it as kids.
-Malaise, arthralgias, rash. These symptoms are caused by immune complex deposition aka TYPE 3 HSR.

136

Congenital B19
-how does fetus die?

RBC destruction in fetus => hydrops fetalis.

137

Polyomavirus
-which two viruses in this family?
-mnemonic for what they cause:

"JC: Junky Cerebrum; BK: Bad Kidney"

-JC virus—progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV.
-BK virus—transplant patients, commonly targets
kidney.

138

Smallpox
-will vesicles be in diff stages or all in the same stage?

-all in the same stage.

139

HSV-2
-where do they go latent?

Sacral ganglia.

140

VZV
-will vesicles be in diff stages or all in the same stage?

Different stages.

141

Most common complication of shingles is:

post-herpetic neuralgia.

142

CMV
-virus goes latent where?

In mononuclear cells.
*EBV invades B cells.

143

CMV causes what type of pneumonia?

Interstitial pneumonia in almost all transplant pts from CMV.

144

CMV
-how is it transmitted?

-Transmitted congenitally and by transfusion, sexual contact, saliva, urine, transplant.

145

HHV-6
-what disease does it cause?
-explain the disease:
-aka?

Roseola: high fevers for several days that can cause seizures, followed by a diffuse macular rash G .
-Transmitted by saliva.
-aka exanthem subitum

146

Herpes HSV-1 encephalitis
-how to Dx?

CSF PCR for herpes encephalitis.

147

genital herpes
-how to Dx?

-Tzanck test—a smear of an opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells.
-Infected cells also have intranuclear Cowdry A inclusions.

148

Reoviruses
-what viruses in this family?
-whats special about reovirus genome?

-Coltivirusa—Colorado tick fever
-Rotavirus—#1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children

*dsRNA virus. segmented.

149

#1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children

Rotavirus (Reovirus).

150

Picornaviruses
-which viruses in this family?
-menmonic?

PERCH
-Poliovirus
-Echovirus—aseptic meningitis
-Rhinovirus—“common cold”
-Coxsackievirus
-HAV

151

Coxsackievirus
-what diseases can it cause?

-aseptic meningitis; herpangina (mouth blisters, fever); hand, foot, and mouth disease; myocarditis; pericarditis.

152

Leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in USA

Calicivirus (norwalk virus) (norovirus)

153

Caliciviruses
-which virus is in this family?
-whats it cause?
-what setting do people usually get it?

-Norovirus—viral gastroenteritis
-aka norwalk virus
-cruiseships!

154

Viral Gastroenteritis on cruiseship:

Norovirus = calicivirus
-aka norwalk virus

155

Flaviviruses
-which viruses does this encompass?

-HCV
-Yellow fever
-Dengue
-St. Louis encephalitisa
-West Nile virusa

156

Yellow fever
-Sxs:

-jaundice, GI hemmorhage w/black vomit.

157

-Most commonly Dx arbovirus in the US:
-Most common arbovirus worldwide:

-West Nile virus = US
-Dengue fever = worldwide

158

Rubella
-which virus family?

Togavirus

159

Retroviruses
-which viruses?

HTLV—T-cell leukemia
HIV—AIDS

160

Coronaviruses
-whats it cause?

Common cold & SARS.

161

Paramyxoviruses
-which viruses?

PaRaMyxovirus:
Parainfluenza—croup
RSV—bronchiolitis in babies; Rx—ribavirin
Measles, Mumps
*rubella = togavirus

162

RSV—bronchiolitis in babies
-Tx:

ribavirin

163

Bullet-shaped virus

rabies virus

164

Filoviruses
-which viruses

Ebola/Marburg hemorrhagic fever

165

Ebola
-which virus family?

Filovirus

166

Bunyaviruses
-most notable virus in this family?

Hantavirus—hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia

167

Picornaviru
-only non-enterovirus in this family?

rhinovirus

168

Yellow fever virus
-transmitted by what?
-which virus family?
-Sxs:

-A flavivirus (also an arbovirus) transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
-high fever, black vomitus, and jaundice.

169

high fever, black vomitus, and jaundice.
-which virus?

Flavivirus => yellow fever virus.

170

Yellow fever
-Liver enzymes profile?
-what will you see histologically in liver?

-much higher AST than ALT.
-AST = 900U/l and ALT = 350U/l
-councilman bodies.

171

Acute diarrhea in the United States during winter,
especially in day-care centers, kindergartens.
-does it cause electrolyte imbalance?

Rotavirus
-Villous destruction with atrophy leads to dec.  absorption of Na+ and loss of K+.

172

Highly sensitive way to rule out asthma?

Methacholine challenge.

173

subperiosteal hematoma
-secondary to deficiency of what?

vitamin C.

174

Friedrich ataxia
-can lead to which heart condition?

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

175

Grey, subretinal membrane in old person losing vision.
-what disease?
-whats the Tx?

Age related macular degeneration.
-anti-VEGF.

176

Inulin
-used to estimate what?
-mnemonic:

GFR
-creatinine = inulin = GFR: CIG.

177

Spongiosis
-definition:
-seen in which diseases:

Epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in intercellular spaces.
-seen in eczematous dermatitis: all the diseases in this umbrella term.

178

Influenza
-function of hemagglutinin:
-function of neuraminidase:

-hemagglutinin = promotes viral entry.
-neuraminidase = promotes progeny virion release.

179

What kind of Abs and against what antigen give you immunity against influenza reinfection?

Circulating Abs against HA = immunity against
reinfection from influenza.
-IgG & IgA.

180

Antigenic shift only possible in which type of influenza?
-why?

-Type A influenza virus.
-bc type A can infect humans or animals.

181

Influenza pandemic caused by drift or shift?

-Shift = worse = pandemic.
-Drift = epidemic.

182

RNA pol doesn't have which capability?

RNA polymerase does NOT have proofreading capability!

183

Anastrozole
-whats it do?
-what other drug has same mech?

-aromatase inhibitor
-exemestane.

184

Filtration fraction: inc or dec in hypovolemia?

-inc.
-bc RPF drops more so than GFR.

185

pertechnetate study
-used to Dx what disease?

Finds gastric mucosa in meckels diverticulum.

186

Which 2 terminal nerves come off posterior chord?

radial & axillary n.

187

scaphoid
-side of radius or ulna?

radius