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Flashcards in 4/1 micro Deck (187)
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1

Giardia lamblia
-how does it cause steattorhea?

-inflammation and villous atrophy of the small bowel/gut.
-adheres to intestinal brush border and releases molecules that induce a mucosal inflammatory response.
-causes injury to duodenal and jejunal mucosa.

2

Giardia lamblia
-major immune response against it?
-which pts at inc. risk?

-CD4 & IgA
-Bruton's agamma, CVID, & IgA deficient pts

3

Entamoeba histolytica
-what can it cause?

-bloody diarrhea, liver abscess (“anchovy paste”exudate)
-RUQ pain (histology shows flask-shaped ulcer if submucosal abscess of colon ruptures).

4

Entamoeba histolytica: Dx:
-what will biopsy show?
-what will stool show?

-biopsy: trophozoites (with RBCs in the cytoplasm).
-stool: cysts (with up to 4 nuclei).

*also serology

5

Entamoeba histolytica: Tx
-for symptomatic pts:
-for asymptomatic cyst passers:

-Metronidazole
-iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers.

6

Cryptosporidium
-how does it stain?

acid fast

7

Cryptosporidium
-Tx:

-Prevention (by filtering city water supplies)
-nitazoxanide in immunocompetent hosts.

8

nitazoxanide
-used for what?

To treat Cryptosporidium in immunocompromised hosts.

9

Congenital toxoplasmosis
-classic triad:
-mnemonic:

-CHIC
-Chorioretinitis, Hydrocephalus, Intracraniel Calcification.

10

Choroid of eye
-what is it?

The vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissue, and lying between the retina and the sclera.

11

toxoplasmosis
-how to Dx?

-Serology, biopsy (tachyzoite).

12

toxoplasmosis
-Tx:

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

13

Congenital toxoplasmosis
-how will baby present?

-pregnant pts, baby can have hydrocephaly, progressive blindness. Also, baby can be born asymptomatic but by their late teenage years, can start to lose vision.

14

Cryptosporidium & T. gondii
-what is our defense against them?

They're intracellular, so CD8.

15

Naegleria fowleri
-Dx:
-Tx:

-Amoebas in spinal fluid.
-Amphotericin B - although most pts die.

16

Trypanosoma brucei
-what does it cause?

African sleeping sickness: enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever (due to antigenic variation), somnolence, coma.

17

Trypanosoma brucei
-transmission?
-how is its vector different than chagas?

-Tsetse fly, a painful bite.
-Chagas caused by reduvid bug = painless bite.

18

Trypanosoma brucei
-Tx:
-menmonic:

“it SURe is nice to go to sleep”; MELAtonin helps w/ sleep".
-SURamin for blood-borne disease.
-MELArsoprol for CNS penetration

19

P. vivax/ovale
-fever pattern? aka?
-Tx for dormant form?

-48 hrs = tertian.
-dormant form (hypnozoite) in liver = give primaquine.

*test for G6PD def. before starting primaquine.

20

P. falciparum
-fever pattern?
-besides fevers, what can it cause?

-irregular fever pattern.
-parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), kidneys, lungs.

21

P. malariae
-fever pattern? aka?

-72-hr cycle (quartan).

22

Malaria
-Dx:

Blood smear:
-trophozoite ring form within RBC.
-schizont containing merozoites.

23

chloroquine
-how does it treat malaria?

Blocks Plasmodium heme polymerase.

24

Malaria
-1st line Tx:
-what if their resistant to first line:

-begin with chloroquine.
-if resistant, use mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil.

25

Malaria
-if life threatening: treat w/what?

-use IV quinidine (test for G6PD deficiency).

26

Vivax/ovale
-what do you have to add to the Tx?

-add primaquine for hypnozoite (test for G6PD deficiency).

27

Babesia
-what will blood smear show?

Blood smear, ring form, “Maltese cross”.

28

Babesia
-Tx:

Atovaquone + azithromycin.

29

Babesia
-mnemonic:

Tetrad = think meiosis = think baby = think babesiosis
Babies are carried in mother = think of coinfection w/Borrelia
-I want an AA baby = atovaquone + azithromycin

30

Trypanosoma cruzi
-mnemonic:

Tom Cruise (Cruzi) is a huge ass (megacolon), who is pretty hard to swallow (megaesophagus/achalasia), but he has a big heart (dilated cardiomyopathy) and he knows how to kiss red lips" (transmitted by Reduvid bug, aka kissing bug).