Flashcards in 4/1 micro Deck (187)
-how does it cause steattorhea?
-inflammation and villous atrophy of the small bowel/gut.
-adheres to intestinal brush border and releases molecules that induce a mucosal inflammatory response.
-causes injury to duodenal and jejunal mucosa.
-major immune response against it?
-which pts at inc. risk?
-CD4 & IgA
-Bruton's agamma, CVID, & IgA deficient pts
-what can it cause?
-bloody diarrhea, liver abscess (“anchovy paste”exudate)
-RUQ pain (histology shows flask-shaped ulcer if submucosal abscess of colon ruptures).
Entamoeba histolytica: Dx:
-what will biopsy show?
-what will stool show?
-biopsy: trophozoites (with RBCs in the cytoplasm).
-stool: cysts (with up to 4 nuclei).
Entamoeba histolytica: Tx
-for symptomatic pts:
-for asymptomatic cyst passers:
-iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers.
-how does it stain?
-Prevention (by filtering city water supplies)
-nitazoxanide in immunocompetent hosts.
-used for what?
To treat Cryptosporidium in immunocompromised hosts.
-Chorioretinitis, Hydrocephalus, Intracraniel Calcification.
Choroid of eye
-what is it?
The vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissue, and lying between the retina and the sclera.
-how to Dx?
-Serology, biopsy (tachyzoite).
Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
-how will baby present?
-pregnant pts, baby can have hydrocephaly, progressive blindness. Also, baby can be born asymptomatic but by their late teenage years, can start to lose vision.
Cryptosporidium & T. gondii
-what is our defense against them?
They're intracellular, so CD8.
-Amoebas in spinal fluid.
-Amphotericin B - although most pts die.
-what does it cause?
African sleeping sickness: enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever (due to antigenic variation), somnolence, coma.
-how is its vector different than chagas?
-Tsetse fly, a painful bite.
-Chagas caused by reduvid bug = painless bite.
“it SURe is nice to go to sleep”; MELAtonin helps w/ sleep".
-SURamin for blood-borne disease.
-MELArsoprol for CNS penetration
-fever pattern? aka?
-Tx for dormant form?
-48 hrs = tertian.
-dormant form (hypnozoite) in liver = give primaquine.
*test for G6PD def. before starting primaquine.
-besides fevers, what can it cause?
-irregular fever pattern.
-parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), kidneys, lungs.
-fever pattern? aka?
-72-hr cycle (quartan).
-trophozoite ring form within RBC.
-schizont containing merozoites.
-how does it treat malaria?
Blocks Plasmodium heme polymerase.
-1st line Tx:
-what if their resistant to first line:
-begin with chloroquine.
-if resistant, use mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil.
-if life threatening: treat w/what?
-use IV quinidine (test for G6PD deficiency).
-what do you have to add to the Tx?
-add primaquine for hypnozoite (test for G6PD deficiency).
-what will blood smear show?
Blood smear, ring form, “Maltese cross”.
Atovaquone + azithromycin.
Tetrad = think meiosis = think baby = think babesiosis
Babies are carried in mother = think of coinfection w/Borrelia
-I want an AA baby = atovaquone + azithromycin