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Flashcards in 4/1 micro Deck (187)
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1
Q
Giardia lamblia
-how does it cause steattorhea?
A
-inflammation and villous atrophy of the small bowel/gut.
-adheres to intestinal brush border and releases molecules that induce a mucosal inflammatory response.
-causes injury to duodenal and jejunal mucosa.
2
Q
Giardia lamblia
-major immune response against it?
-which pts at inc. risk?
A
-CD4 & IgA
-Bruton's agamma, CVID, & IgA deficient pts
3
Q
Entamoeba histolytica
-what can it cause?
A
-bloody diarrhea, liver abscess (“anchovy paste”exudate)
-RUQ pain (histology shows flask-shaped ulcer if submucosal abscess of colon ruptures).
4
Q
Entamoeba histolytica: Dx:
-what will biopsy show?
-what will stool show?
A
-biopsy: trophozoites (with RBCs in the cytoplasm).
-stool: cysts (with up to 4 nuclei).

*also serology
5
Q
Entamoeba histolytica: Tx
-for symptomatic pts:
-for asymptomatic cyst passers:
A
-Metronidazole
-iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers.
6
Q
Cryptosporidium
-how does it stain?
A
acid fast
7
Q
Cryptosporidium
-Tx:
A
-Prevention (by filtering city water supplies)
-nitazoxanide in immunocompetent hosts.
8
Q
nitazoxanide
-used for what?
A
To treat Cryptosporidium in immunocompromised hosts.
9
Q
Congenital toxoplasmosis
-classic triad:
-mnemonic:
A
-CHIC
-Chorioretinitis, Hydrocephalus, Intracraniel Calcification.
10
Q
Choroid of eye
-what is it?
A
The vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissue, and lying between the retina and the sclera.
11
Q
toxoplasmosis
-how to Dx?
A
-Serology, biopsy (tachyzoite).
12
Q
toxoplasmosis
-Tx:
A
Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
13
Q
Congenital toxoplasmosis
-how will baby present?
A
-pregnant pts, baby can have hydrocephaly, progressive blindness. Also, baby can be born asymptomatic but by their late teenage years, can start to lose vision.
14
Q
Cryptosporidium & T. gondii
-what is our defense against them?
A
They're intracellular, so CD8.
15
Q
Naegleria fowleri
-Dx:
-Tx:
A
-Amoebas in spinal fluid.
-Amphotericin B - although most pts die.
16
Q
Trypanosoma brucei
-what does it cause?
A
African sleeping sickness: enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever (due to antigenic variation), somnolence, coma.
17
Q
Trypanosoma brucei
-transmission?
-how is its vector different than chagas?
A
-Tsetse fly, a painful bite.
-Chagas caused by reduvid bug = painless bite.
18
Q
Trypanosoma brucei
-Tx:
-menmonic:
A
“it SURe is nice to go to sleep”; MELAtonin helps w/ sleep".
-SURamin for blood-borne disease.
-MELArsoprol for CNS penetration
19
Q
P. vivax/ovale
-fever pattern? aka?
-Tx for dormant form?
A
-48 hrs = tertian.
-dormant form (hypnozoite) in liver = give primaquine.

*test for G6PD def. before starting primaquine.
20
Q
P. falciparum
-fever pattern?
-besides fevers, what can it cause?
A
-irregular fever pattern.
-parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), kidneys, lungs.
21
Q
P. malariae
-fever pattern? aka?
A
-72-hr cycle (quartan).
22
Q
Malaria
-Dx:
A
Blood smear:
-trophozoite ring form within RBC.
-schizont containing merozoites.
23
Q
chloroquine
-how does it treat malaria?
A
Blocks Plasmodium heme polymerase.
24
Q
Malaria
-1st line Tx:
-what if their resistant to first line:
A
-begin with chloroquine.
-if resistant, use mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil.
25
Q
Malaria
-if life threatening: treat w/what?
A
-use IV quinidine (test for G6PD deficiency).
26
Q
Vivax/ovale
-what do you have to add to the Tx?
A
-add primaquine for hypnozoite (test for G6PD deficiency).
27
Q
Babesia
-what will blood smear show?
A
Blood smear, ring form, “Maltese cross”.
28
Q
Babesia
-Tx:
A
Atovaquone + azithromycin.
29
Q
Babesia
-mnemonic:
A
Tetrad = think meiosis = think baby = think babesiosis
Babies are carried in mother = think of coinfection w/Borrelia
-I want an AA baby = atovaquone + azithromycin
30
Q
Trypanosoma cruzi
-mnemonic:
A
Tom Cruise (Cruzi) is a huge ass (megacolon), who is pretty hard to swallow (megaesophagus/achalasia), but he has a big heart (dilated cardiomyopathy) and he knows how to kiss red lips" (transmitted by Reduvid bug, aka kissing bug).
31
Q
Chagas disease:
-which bug?
-what does it cause?
A
-trypanosoma cruzi
-dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus/achalasia; predominantly in South America.
32
Q
Chagas diease
-common early sign?
-what type of heart condition can it cause?
A
-periorbital swelling = common early sign of chagas.
-dilated cardiomyopathy
33
Q
Chagas diease
-Tx:
A
Tom cruise drives a "benz" and gets Nifer botOX.
-Benznidazole or nifurtimox.
34
Q
Leishmania donovani
-Sxs:
-mnemonic:
A
-donovan frankenreiter -> big drinker, big liver and spleen.
-spiking fevers, pancytopenia.
35
Q
Leishmania donovani
-Tx:
-mnemonic:
A
-donovan gets a lot of ASS = Amphotericin b, Sodium Stibogluc.
36
Q
Leishmania donovani
-vector:
-mnemonic:
A
-donovan lives on beach = sand = sandfly
37
Q
Leishmania donovani
-what two forms of disease can it cause?
A
-Visceral infection - MASSIVE splenomegaly.
-Cutaneous infection: ulcerating skin sore at site of the bite. Most will heal spontaneously over a year.
38
Q
Trichomonas vaginalis
-vaginitis or vaginosis?
-color of discharge?
-itching/burning?
A
-vaginitis
-greenish discharge
-yes
39
Q
Trichomonas vaginalis
-how is the cervix described?
-Tx:
A
-Strawberry cervix.
-Metronidazole for patient and partner (prophylaxis).
40
Q
Intestinal Nematode
-aka?
-mnemonic?
A
-Intestinal roundworms
-nematodes are NASA-E (nasty).
41
Q
Intestinal Nematodes
-name them
-mnemonic
A
-nematodes are NASA-E (nasty).
-Necator americanus
-Ancylostoma duodenate
-Strongyloides stercoralis
-Ascaris lumbricoides
-Enterobius vermicularis
42
Q
Intestinal Nematodes
-Tx? mnemonic?
-exception?
A
Worms BEND, BEND them enough and they break(die).
Bendazoles + pyrantel pamoate
-except strongyloides = ivermectin.
43
Q
Tissue nematodes
-aka?
-mnemonic?
A
-tissue roundworms
-TOWL
44
Q
Tissue nematodes
-name them
-mnemonic
A
TOWL
-toxocara canis
-onchocerca volvulus
-wucheria bancrofti
-Loa Loa
45
Q
Cestodes
-aka?
-menmonic?
A
-tapeworms
-TED's tape
46
Q
Cestodes
-name them
-mnemonic
A
TED's tape
-Taenia saginatum/solium
-Echinococcus graunlosis
-Diphyllobothrium latum
47
Q
Cestodes + trematodes
-Tx?
-exception:
A
-praziquantel
-except echinococcus granulosis = albendazole.
48
Q
Trematodes
-aka? aka?
-mnemonic?
A
-flukes = flatworms
-SS fluke
49
Q
Trematodes
-name them
-mnemonic
A
SS fluke
-schistosoma
-clonorchis sinensis
50
Q
Enterobius vermicularis
-aka?
-menmonic:
-Tx:
A
-pinworm
-verm = worm, aris = anus.
-the scotch tape worm.
-Tx: bendazole or pyrantel pamoate.
51
Q
Ascaris lumbricoides
-aka
-connection w/intermitten RUQ pain?
-Tx:
A
-giant roundworm
-can invade biliary tree & lead to brown pigment stones.
-Tx: bendazole or pyrantel pamoate.
52
Q
Strongyloides stercoralis
-transmission?
-what kind of pain can it cause?
-Tx:
A
-Larvae in soil penetrate the skin.
-PUD-like epigastric pain.
-Tx: ivermectin or albendazole.
-can also cause pneumonia during their path to the intestines.
53
Q
How do larvae that penetrate your skin make it to your GI tract?
A
-Infectious (filariform) larvae penetrate the skin of feet, enter bloodstream, & transported to lungs. The larvae enter alveoli & ascend toward trachea, causing respiratory tract inflammation (can manifest as pneumonia).
-Larvae pass from the trachea to pharynx, & when swallowed the larvae mature into adults in s. intestines to attach to the mucosa.
-Initially causes gastroenteritis, but secretion of anticoagulant and consumption of blood results in anemia.
-Adults mate in the lumen of the intestine, allowing eggs to be shed in the feces.
54
Q
immune response against invasive helminths?
A
Eonsinophils
55
Q
Invasive intestinal helminths:
-what kind of immune response?
A
-invasive ones = strongyloides, ancylostoma, necator.
-eosinophillic response.
56
Q
Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus
-aka?
-transmission?
-main Sx?
A
-hookworms
-Larvae penetrate skin.
-microcytic anemia, they suck your blood.
-can also cause pneumonia during their path to the intestines.
57
Q
Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus
-Tx:
A
-bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate.
58
Q
Onchocerca volvulus
-what class?
-transmission?
-mnemonic?
A
-tissue nematode
-Female blackfly bite
-"ochocinco" is black = blackfly bite, black skin nodules, “black sight”. He does NOT swim in the river!
59
Q
Onchocerca volvulus
-Tx:
-mnemonic:
A
-Ivermectin (ivermectin for river blindness).
60
Q
river blindness
-cause?
A
Onchocerca volvulus
61
Q
Loa loa
-what class?
-transmission?
A
-tissue nematode.
-Deer fly, horse fly, mango fly.
62
Q
Loa loa
-what it cause?
A
Swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva.
-does NOT cause blindness.
63
Q
Onchocerca volvulus vs Loa loa
-which one can cause blindness?
A
Onchocerca volvulus.
64
Q
Loa loa & Wuchereria bancrofti
-Tx:
A
Diethylcarbamazine
65
Q
Diethylcarbamazine
-what is it?
A
Tx for Loa loa & Wuchereria bancrofti.
66
Q
Nematodes
-Ingested:
-mnemonic:
A
You’ll get sick if you EAT these!
-Enterobius, Ascaris, Toxocara
67
Q
Nematodes
-cutaneous:
A
These get into your feet from the SANd.
-Strongyloides, Ancylostoma, Necator.
68
Q
Nematodes
-Bite:
A
Lay LOW to avoid getting bitten.
-Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti.
69
Q
Taenia solium
-what class?
-aka?
A
-Tapeworm = cestode
-pork tapeworm.
70
Q
Taenia solium
-What do you consume to become definitive host?
-what do you consume to become intermediate host?
A
-larvae from pork => definitive host.
-eggs from fecal-oral => intermediate.
71
Q
Taenia solium:
-definitive host => which Sxs
-intermediate host => which Sxs
A
-definitive host => intestinal infection + poop out eggs.
-intermediate host => cysticercosis/neurocysticercosis.
72
Q
Taenia solium
-Tx for intestinal infection:
-Tx for neurocysticercosis:
A
-praziquantel for intestinal
-albendazole for neurocysticercosis
73
Q
Diphyllobothrium latum
-what class?
-aka?
A
-cestode = tapeworm.
-fish tapeworm.
74
Q
Diphyllobothrium latum
-transmission?
A
Ingestion of larvae from raw freshwater fish.
75
Q
Diphyllobothrium latum
-what it cause?
-Tx:
A
-Vitamin B12 deficiency (tapeworm competes for B12
in intestine) => megaloblastic anemia.
-praziquantel.
76
Q
Echinococcus granulosus
-whats the definitive host?
-whats the intermediate host?
A
-Definitive host = dog
-Intermediate hosts = sheep & human.
77
Q
Eat larvae you become which type of host?
A
definitive host
-larvae can mature into adults.
78
Q
Eat eggs you become which type of host?
A
intermediate host
-eggs can hatch into larvae, but larvae can not mature into adults.
79
Q
Echinococcus granulosus
-what class?
-how do you get it?
-will you be definitive or intermediate host?
A
-cestodes = tapeworm
-Ingestion of eggs from dog feces.
-intermediate host.
80
Q
Echinococcus granulosus
-Sxs:
-Tx:
A
-Hydatid cysts in liver, causing anaphylaxis if antigens
released (surgeons preinject with ethanol to kill cysts
before removal).
-albendazole.
81
Q
trematode
-aka? aka?
A
-fluke, flatworm.
82
Q
Cestodes
-what do you usually find in stool?
A
Find proglottids in stool.
83
Q
Trematodes
-what do you usually find in stool?
A
Eggs
84
Q
Schistosoma
-what class?
-what is the host?
-transmission?
A
-trematode = fluke = flatworm.
-snails = intermediate host.
-cercariae penetrate skin of humans.
85
Q
Schistosoma
-what does it cause?
A
-Liver and spleen granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammation.
*Chronic infection with S. haematobium can lead to
SCC of the bladder (painless hematuria).
86
Q
Schistosoma
-which species can lead to which type of cancer?
A
Chronic infection with S. haematobium can lead to SCC of the bladder (painless hematuria).

*HEMAtobium can cause painless HEMAturia.
87
Q
Schistosoma manSoni vs hemaTobium
-difference in appearance?
A
-mansoni has a sub-terminal spine.
-hematobium has a terminal spine.
88
Q
Schistosoma
-how to Dx?
A
Find eggs in stool.
89
Q
Clonorchis sinensis
-what class?
-aka?
-how do you get it?
A
-Trematode = fluke = flatworm.
-Chinese Liver fluke.
-Undercooked fish

*dont confuse w/ochocirca thats River blindness.
90
Q
Clonorchis sinensis
-mnemonic:
A
-Clo = "Col" = cholangiocarcinoma. SIN = one of seven
deadly sins is gluttony, and you need a gallbladder
to digest all that fat.
91
Q
Clonorchis sinensis
-what can it cause?
A
-Biliary tract inflammation =>Ž pigmented gallstones.
-Associated with cholangiocarcinoma.
92
Q
Clonorchis sinensis
-how does it cause brown pigment stones?
A
Can invade biliary tree & lead to inc. in beta-glucoronidase which unconjugates bili = brown pigment stones.
93
Q
Clonorchis sinensis
-whats unique about its egg?
A
The egg has an operculum aka a lid.
94
Q
Clonorchis sinensis
-Tx:
A
praziquantel.
95
Q
Which helminths can cause microcytic anemia?
A
-Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus
(hookworms).
96
Q
How do naked viruses exit their host cell?
A
They lyse the cell. If they blebbed off, then they would be enveloped.
97
Q
What does "naked" virus mean?
-does it have envelope?
-does it have capsid?
A
-naked = no envelope (lipid bilayer).
-yes, it can still have a capsid.
98
Q
What are the two types of capsids?
A
Icosahedral and helical.
99
Q
Helical capsid viruses
-what do they all have in common?
A
There are no naked viruses w/a helical capsid.
-so all viruses w/helical capsules have envelopes.
100
Q
If a virus is can get past the stomach acidity, what characteristic must it have?
A
Must be a naked virus!
-so by definition it can NOT have a helical capsid!
101
Q
Viral capsids
-what are they made of?
A
Protein
102
Q
Location of envelope w/relation to viral capsid:
A
the envelope is OUTSIDE of the capsid.
-makes sense b/c when a virus blebs off, takes envelope w/it, so envelope must be the outer most layer.
103
Q
Recombination
-define:
A
Exchange of genes between 2 chromosomes by crossing over within regions of significant base
sequence homology.
104
Q
Reassortment
-happens in what kind of viruses?
A
Those w/segmented genomes: BOAReo
-bunya, orthomyxo, arena, reovirus.
105
Q
Viral Complementation
-define:
A
When 1 of 2 viruses that infect the cell has a mutation that results in a nonfunctional protein. The nonmutated virus “complements” the mutated one by making a functional protein that serves both viruses.
106
Q
Viral: Phenotypic mixing
-define:
A
-Occurs with simultaneous infection of a cell with 2 viruses.
-Genome of virus A can be partially or completely coated (forming pseudovirion) with the surface proteins of virus B.
-Type B protein coat determines the tropism (infectivity) of the hybrid virus. However, the progeny from this
infection have a type A coat that is encoded by its type A genetic material.
107
Q
Live attenuated vaccines
-do you need boosters?
-mnemonic?
A
-no booster needed.
MIS SYC Live!
M=MMR
I=influenza (intranasal)
S=Sabin polio
S=smallpox
Y=yellow fever
C=chickenpox
108
Q
Killed vaccines
-mnemonic?
A
RIP Always.
-Rabies
-Influenza (injected)
-Salk Polio
-HAV vaccines.
109
Q
Infleunza vaccine
-which one is killed virus - injected or intranasal?
A
Injected = killed vaccine.
-you wouldn't want to inject a live attenuated (no real reason, just a mnemonic).
110
Q
Recombinant vaccines: name them
A
-HBV (antigen = recombinant HBsAg)
-HPV (types 6, 11, 16, and 18).
111
Q
DNA viruses
-all = linear, except these, which circular:
A
papilloma-, polyoma-, and hepadnaviruses.
112
Q
Only dsRNA virus:
A
Reovirus (rotavirus)
113
Q
Positive-stranded RNA viruses:
-mnemonic:
A
I went to a retro (retrovirus) toga (togavirus) party,
where I drank flavored (flavivirus) Corona (coronavirus) and ate hippy (hepevirus) California (calicivirus) pickles (picornavirus).
114
Q
Negative strand RNA virus
-what must it carry with it?
A
Is complementary to mRNAso needs to be converted to positive strand by RNA dep. RNA polymerase (they must carry gene for this b/c human cells dont have it).
115
Q
Purified nucleic acids of most dsDNA and (+) strand ssRNA (≈ mRNA) viruses are infectious.
-exceptions:
A
-except poxviruses and HBV.
116
Q
Are purified nucleic acids of (-) sense RNA viruses infectious?
A
No
-they need the RNA-dep RNA pol. thats carried w/in the complete virion.
117
Q
Viral replication: locations:
-DNA viruses:
-RNA viruses:
A
-DNA viruses = Replicate in the nucleus except poxvirus.
-RNA viruses = Replicate in the cytoplasm (except influenza virus and retroviruses).
118
Q
Which DNA viruses do NOT replicate in the nucleus?
A
poxvirus
*carries own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
119
Q
Which RNA viruses do NOT replicate in cytoplasm?
A
Influenza & retroviruses.
120
Q
All enveloped viruses acquire their envelopes from plasma membrane of their host when they exit.
-except:
A
-herpesviruses, which acquire envelopes from
nuclear membrane.
121
Q
Naked viruses
-mnemonic:
A
Give PAPP smears and CPR to a naked Heppy
-P = polyoma
-A = adeno
-P = papillo
-P = parvo
-C = calici
-P = picorna
-R = reo
-HepE
122
Q
DNA viruses
-mnemonic:
A
HHAPPPPy
-Hepadna
-Herpes
-Adeno
-Pox
-Parvo
-Papilloma
-Polyoma
123
Q
hepadnavirus =
A
Hep B
124
Q
All DNA viruses have what type of capsid?
-except which one?
A
-All DNA = icosahedral
-except poxvirus (poxvirus was also the one that didnt replicate in nucleus).
125
Q
Poxvirus
-how is it unique amongst the DNA viruses?
A
-does NOT replicate in nucleus.
-does NOT have icosahedral capsid.
126
Q
How are viruses taken into cells?
A
They are endocytosed.
-they hook onto a surface receptor.
127
Q
What protein allows herpesviridae to make multinucleated cells?
A
F protein.
128
Q
common cause of spontaneous temporal lobe encephalitis?
-what will you see on imaging?
A
HSV-1
-hemorrhagic lesions in temporal lobe.
129
Q
HHV-6
-what family of viruses?
-what disease does it cause?
A
-herpes virus
-roseola (exanthem subitum)
130
Q
HHV-7
-what family of viruses?
-what disease does it cause?
A
-herpes virus
-less common cause of roseola
131
Q
Hepadnavirus
-which hepatitis virus is this?
-genome made of?
-which unique enzyme does it have?
A
-hep B
-Partially DS and circular
-Not a retrovirus but has reverse transcriptase.
132
Q
HepB lifecycle
-order of genome events
A
circular partially dsDNA => dsDNA => mRNA + circular, partial dsDNA
133
Q
swimming pool conjuctivitis
-which virus?
A
adenovirus
134
Q
Adenovirus
-what diseases can it cause?
A
-Febrile pharyngitis—sore throat
-Acute hemorrhagic cystitis
-Pneumonia
-Conjunctivitis—“pink eye”
135
Q
Parvovirus
-Sxs in adults/
A
-Sx in adults: much more serious but rare b/c we usually get it as kids.
-Malaise, arthralgias, rash. These symptoms are caused by immune complex deposition aka TYPE 3 HSR.
136
Q
Congenital B19
-how does fetus die?
A
RBC destruction in fetus => hydrops fetalis.
137
Q
Polyomavirus
-which two viruses in this family?
-mnemonic for what they cause:
A
"JC: Junky Cerebrum; BK: Bad Kidney"

-JC virus—progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV.
-BK virus—transplant patients, commonly targets
kidney.
138
Q
Smallpox
-will vesicles be in diff stages or all in the same stage?
A
-all in the same stage.
139
Q
HSV-2
-where do they go latent?
A
Sacral ganglia.
140
Q
VZV
-will vesicles be in diff stages or all in the same stage?
A
Different stages.
141
Q
Most common complication of shingles is:
A
post-herpetic neuralgia.
142
Q
CMV
-virus goes latent where?
A
In mononuclear cells.
*EBV invades B cells.
143
Q
CMV causes what type of pneumonia?
A
Interstitial pneumonia in almost all transplant pts from CMV.
144
Q
CMV
-how is it transmitted?
A
-Transmitted congenitally and by transfusion, sexual contact, saliva, urine, transplant.
145
Q
HHV-6
-what disease does it cause?
-explain the disease:
-aka?
A
Roseola: high fevers for several days that can cause seizures, followed by a diffuse macular rash G .
-Transmitted by saliva.
-aka exanthem subitum
146
Q
Herpes HSV-1 encephalitis
-how to Dx?
A
CSF PCR for herpes encephalitis.
147
Q
genital herpes
-how to Dx?
A
-Tzanck test—a smear of an opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells.
-Infected cells also have intranuclear Cowdry A inclusions.
148
Q
Reoviruses
-what viruses in this family?
-whats special about reovirus genome?
A
-Coltivirusa—Colorado tick fever
-Rotavirus—#1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children

*dsRNA virus. segmented.
149
Q
#1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children
A
Rotavirus (Reovirus).
150
Q
Picornaviruses
-which viruses in this family?
-menmonic?
A
PERCH
-Poliovirus
-Echovirus—aseptic meningitis
-Rhinovirus—“common cold”
-Coxsackievirus
-HAV
151
Q
Coxsackievirus
-what diseases can it cause?
A
-aseptic meningitis; herpangina (mouth blisters, fever); hand, foot, and mouth disease; myocarditis; pericarditis.
152
Q
Leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in USA
A
Calicivirus (norwalk virus) (norovirus)
153
Q
Caliciviruses
-which virus is in this family?
-whats it cause?
-what setting do people usually get it?
A
-Norovirus—viral gastroenteritis
-aka norwalk virus
-cruiseships!
154
Q
Viral Gastroenteritis on cruiseship:
A
Norovirus = calicivirus
-aka norwalk virus
155
Q
Flaviviruses
-which viruses does this encompass?
A
-HCV
-Yellow fever
-Dengue
-St. Louis encephalitisa
-West Nile virusa
156
Q
Yellow fever
-Sxs:
A
-jaundice, GI hemmorhage w/black vomit.
157
Q
-Most commonly Dx arbovirus in the US:
-Most common arbovirus worldwide:
A
-West Nile virus = US
-Dengue fever = worldwide
158
Q
Rubella
-which virus family?
A
Togavirus
159
Q
Retroviruses
-which viruses?
A
HTLV—T-cell leukemia
HIV—AIDS
160
Q
Coronaviruses
-whats it cause?
A
Common cold & SARS.
161
Q
Paramyxoviruses
-which viruses?
A
PaRaMyxovirus:
Parainfluenza—croup
RSV—bronchiolitis in babies; Rx—ribavirin
Measles, Mumps
*rubella = togavirus
162
Q
RSV—bronchiolitis in babies
-Tx:
A
ribavirin
163
Q
Bullet-shaped virus
A
rabies virus
164
Q
Filoviruses
-which viruses
A
Ebola/Marburg hemorrhagic fever
165
Q
Ebola
-which virus family?
A
Filovirus
166
Q
Bunyaviruses
-most notable virus in this family?
A
Hantavirus—hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia
167
Q
Picornaviru
-only non-enterovirus in this family?
A
rhinovirus
168
Q
Yellow fever virus
-transmitted by what?
-which virus family?
-Sxs:
A
-A flavivirus (also an arbovirus) transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
-high fever, black vomitus, and jaundice.
169
Q
high fever, black vomitus, and jaundice.
-which virus?
A
Flavivirus => yellow fever virus.
170
Q
Yellow fever
-Liver enzymes profile?
-what will you see histologically in liver?
A
-much higher AST than ALT.
-AST = 900U/l and ALT = 350U/l
-councilman bodies.
171
Q
Acute diarrhea in the United States during winter,
especially in day-care centers, kindergartens.
-does it cause electrolyte imbalance?
A
Rotavirus
-Villous destruction with atrophy leads to dec.  absorption of Na+ and loss of K+.
172
Q
Highly sensitive way to rule out asthma?
A
Methacholine challenge.
173
Q
subperiosteal hematoma
-secondary to deficiency of what?
A
vitamin C.
174
Q
Friedrich ataxia
-can lead to which heart condition?
A
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
175
Q
Grey, subretinal membrane in old person losing vision.
-what disease?
-whats the Tx?
A
Age related macular degeneration.
-anti-VEGF.
176
Q
Inulin
-used to estimate what?
-mnemonic:
A
GFR
-creatinine = inulin = GFR: CIG.
177
Q
Spongiosis
-definition:
-seen in which diseases:
A
Epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in intercellular spaces.
-seen in eczematous dermatitis: all the diseases in this umbrella term.
178
Q
Influenza
-function of hemagglutinin:
-function of neuraminidase:
A
-hemagglutinin = promotes viral entry.
-neuraminidase = promotes progeny virion release.
179
Q
What kind of Abs and against what antigen give you immunity against influenza reinfection?
A
Circulating Abs against HA = immunity against
reinfection from influenza.
-IgG & IgA.
180
Q
Antigenic shift only possible in which type of influenza?
-why?
A
-Type A influenza virus.
-bc type A can infect humans or animals.
181
Q
Influenza pandemic caused by drift or shift?
A
-Shift = worse = pandemic.
-Drift = epidemic.
182
Q
RNA pol doesn't have which capability?
A
RNA polymerase does NOT have proofreading capability!
183
Q
Anastrozole
-whats it do?
-what other drug has same mech?
A
-aromatase inhibitor
-exemestane.
184
Q
Filtration fraction: inc or dec in hypovolemia?
A
-inc.
-bc RPF drops more so than GFR.
185
Q
pertechnetate study
-used to Dx what disease?
A
Finds gastric mucosa in meckels diverticulum.
186
Q
Which 2 terminal nerves come off posterior chord?
A
radial & axillary n.
187
Q
scaphoid
-side of radius or ulna?
A
radius