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Flashcards in 3/17 repro Deck (122)
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1

renal cell carcinoma
-most common location of metastasis?

lungs

2

Where do primary brain neoplasms often metastasize to?

inside the CNS

3

link btwn hypothyroidism & amenorrhea/galactorrhea

inc. TRH can stimulate PRL prod.

4

Most common cause of spont. nipple discharge?

intraductal papilloma

5

polythelia
-what is it?

accessory nipple

6

ephelide
-what is it?

freckle

7

ANP & BNP
-which messenger system do they use?

inc. cGMP.

8

vitamin D
-wheres its receptor?

cytoplasm

9

AFP:
-what normally produces it?
-marker for which tumors?

-fetal liver & yolk sac = normal
-HCC, nonseminomatous testicular carcinomas, ovarian carcinomas.

10

CA-125
-marker for what?

ovarian cancer
-not good for screening: highly nonspecific.
-use it to monitor progression.

11

Gross hematuria in a sickle cell pt/DM pt/tylenol abuser
-which disease?
-dont confuse w/what?

renal papillary necrosis
-dont confuse w/acute tubular necrosis which presents in a severely ill hospitalized pt w/oliguria.

12

choriocarcinoma
-most common distant metastasis?

lungs

13

choriocarcinoma
-cancer of which cells?
-villi? cytotropho? syncytiotropho?

-neoplasm of trophoblast = which includes both cyto & syncytio.
-NOT of villi.

14

klinefelters:
-abnormal hormone levels?

-dec. testosterone
-inc. FSH (bc dec inhibin)
-inc. LH => inc. estrogen

*i dont understand why estrogen is inc.

15

CEA
-marker for what?

-colorectal & pancreatic cancer

16

Where do most ovarian malignancies arise from?

90% = surface epithelium derived

17

Case control study
-odds ratio or relative risk?

-odds ratio

18

Cohort study
-odds ratio or relative risk?

-relative risk

19

Most important chemical mediator of sepsis?

TNF-alpha

20

Suckling increases which hormone production?

oxytocin & PRL

21

Risks for child thats not breast-fed:

-Asthma, allergies, diabetes mellitus, and obesity.

22

hPL
-inc or dec. in hypoglycemia?

-elevated to shunt what little glucose there is to the fetus.
*inc. the moms resistance to insulin.

23

Which is a better diagnostic test for menopause, LH or FSH?

FSH.

24

Why do post menopausal woman have inc. risk of CAD?

bc estrogen inc. HDL and dec. LDL.
-and now you have way less estrogen!

25

spermiogenesis

-loss of cytoplasmic contents, gain of acrosomal cap = forms mature spermatozoon.

*dont confuse w/spermatogenesis.

26

Which hormone responsible for growth of penis?

Testosterone

27

Which hormone responsible for differentiation of penis?

DHT

28

Klinefelter vs Turner
-which one has a barr body, which one doesn't?

-Klinefelter (47 XXY) has a barr body
-Turner (45 XO) does NOT.

29

Genetics of Turners syndrome:

-Can be complete monosomy (45,XO) or mosaicism (e.g., 45,XO/46,XX).

30

Double Y males [male] (XYY)
-Sxs:

Phenotypically normal
-very tall, severe acne.
-antisocial behavior.
-Normal fertility.
-Small % diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders.