3/22 neuro Flashcards Preview

Final FA review > 3/22 neuro > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3/22 neuro Deck (109):
1

Short acting benzos?
-mnemonic?

TOM acts fast
-triazolam
-oxazepam
-midazolam

*also alprazolam. AL bundy has a short fuse.

2

Essential tremor
-Tx:

propanolol
-2nd line = primidone.

3

3 major types of glial cells

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia

4

astrocytes & oligodendros
-derived from what tissue?

neuroectoderm

5

which hypoT nucleus maintains circadian rhythm?
-mnemonic?

suprachiasmatic nucleus
-hard to be "super charismatic" when you have jet lag.

6

All sensory information goes through thalamus except:

olfaction

7

When a pt needs IV ABxs, can oral ABxs be a good enough substitute?

no
-oral ABxs do not adequately penetrate the CSF.

8

heroin withdrawal
-key Sxs:

dilated pupils
yawning
lacrimation

9

Alcohol & benzo withdrawal
-key Sxs:

tachy
seizures

10

nicotine withdrawal
-key Sxs:

inc. appetite

11

Seizures
-opioid or alcohol withdrawal?

alcohol withdrawal can produce seizures, opioid withdrawal does NOT.

*benzo withdrawal can also lead to seizures.

12

nicotinic receptor
-how many ACh need to bind for channel to open?

2

13

chlorpromazine
-high or low potency?

low potency antipsychotic

14

fluphenazine
-high or low potency?

high potency antipsychotic

15

entacapone
-mech?

peripheral COMT inhibitors, prevent L-DOPA degradation, increased dopamine availability.

16

entacapone vs tolcapone
-difference?

Entacapone inhibits peripheral COMT while tolcapone inhibits both central & peripheral COMT.

17

MAO-B
-degrades what?

dopamine

18

MAO-A
-degrades what?

NE & serotonin

19

Which receptor causes mydriasis?

alpha1

20

What nerve inn. all the muscles of mastication?

V3 (mandibular) of the trigeminal

21

which muscle opens the jaw?

lateral pterygoid

22

Mandibular n. (V3, trigeminal)
-exits skull through which foramen?

foramen ovale

23

Maxillary n. (V2, trigeminal)
-exits skull through which foramen?

foramen rotundum

24

TCAs
-blockade of what leads to arrythmias?

cardiac fast sodium channels

*also keep in mind, blockade of muscarinic receptors can also cause tachy.

25

TCAs have inhibitory effects on what receptors?

-NE & serotonin reuptake
-muscarinic
-alpha-1
-histamine
-cardiac fast Na channels

26

Whats the most common cause of death in pts w/anti-depressant toxicity?

TCAs inhibit cardiac fast sodium channels resulting in arrythmias.

27

ant pit
-derived from what tissue?

rathke pouch = surface ectoderm

28

post pit.
-derived from what tissue?

neural tube (which is from ectoderm).

29

Alar plate
-ventral or dorsal?
-motor or sensory?

(dorsal): sensory

30

Basal plate
-ventral or dorsal?
-motor or sensory?

(ventral): motor

31

Brainstem
-components:

midbrain + pons + medulla = brainstem.

32

Forebrain
-aka?
-what does it develop into?

-AKA: prosencephalon
-telencephalon => cerebral hemispheres
-diencephalon => thalamus

33

Midbrain
-aka?
-what does it develop into?

-AKA: mesencephalon
-midbrain

34

Hindbrain
-aka?
-what does it develop into?

-AKA: rhombencephalon
-Metencephalon => pons + cerebellum
-Myelencephalon => medulla

35

3rd ventricle
-which part of brain?

thalamus

36

aqueduct of sylvius
-which part of brain?

midbrain

37

Neural crest
-origin of what nervous system structures?

PNS neurons, Schwann cells.

38

whats the resident macrophage of the CNS and what layer does it derive from?

microglia
-from mesoderm like macrophages.

39

Order of closing of neural tube:
-rostal, middle, caudal: order?

-neural tube first closes in the middle. Then the rostal
end, then the caudal end.

40

Neuropores
-fuse during which week?

4th week

41

Failure of neuropores to close
-persistent connection btwn what two areas?

amniotic cavity & spinal canal.

42

Whats the marker for neural tube defect?
-and where can you measure it?
-whats a confirmatory test?

inc. AFP
-amniotic fluid & maternal serum
-inc. AChE in amniotic fluid = confirmatory test.

43

Spina bifida occulta
-is dura intact?

yes
-only spina bifida lesion w/intact dura.

44

Anencephaly
-what part of brain is missing?
-associated w/what maternal problem?

-No forebrain.
-maternal DM 1.

45

Holoprosencephaly
-what is it?
-which signaling pathway is fucked up?

-Failure of left and right hemispheres to separate, usually occurs during weeks 5-6.
-sonic hedgehog

46

Holoprosencephaly
-presentation?
-associated w/what genetic disease?

-Moderate form has cleft lip/palate, most severe form results in cyclopia.
-patau (trisomy 13)

47

Chiari II (Arnold-Chiari malformation)
-what is it?
-whats it cause?

-Significant herniation of cerebellar tonsils and vermis through foramen magnum
- Aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus

48

Chiari II (Arnold-Chiari malformation)
-how does it present?

-Often presents with lumbosacral myelomeningocele and paralysis below the defect.

49

Dandy-Walker
-what is it?
-associated w/what comorbidities?

-Agenesis of cerebellar vermis with cystic enlargement of 4th ventricle.
-Associated with hydrocephalus and spina bifida.

50

Syringomyelia
-what is it?
-what cells are usually damaged first?

-Cystic cavity (syrinx) within the spinal cord.
-Crossing anterior spinal commissural fibers are typically
damaged first.

51

Syringomyelia
-Sxs:
-most common location?

-Results in a “cape-like” bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in upper extremities (fine touch sensation is preserved).
-Most common at C8–T1.

52

Ant. 2/3 of tongue
-which branchial arches?

-1st and 2nd branchial arches.

53

Post. 1/3 of tongue
-which branchial arches?

-3rd and 4th branchial arches

54

Post. 1/3 of tongue
-somatosensation via?
-taste via?

-CN 9 for both.

55

Which CNs carry taste sensation?
-what nucleus do they deliver this to?

CN VII, IX, X
-solitary nucleus

56

Ant. 2/3 of tongue
-somatosensation via?
-taste via?

-sensation = V3
-taste = CN 7

57

Astrocyte
-handles metabolism of what?

potassium

58

HIV-infected microglia: appearance?

-fuse to form multinucleated giant cells in the CNS.

59

Oligodendrocyte
-how many axons can it myelinate?

A lot (~30)

60

Oligodendrocyte
-how many axons can it myelinate?
-injured in which diseases?

-~30.
-Injured in multiple sclerosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), and leukodystrophies.

61

Schwann cells
-how many axons can it myelinate?
-mnemonic?

-can only myelinate 1 PNS axon.
-Schwann bike only fits one person.

62

Schwann cells
-derived from?
-destroyed in what disease(s)?

-neural crest
-Destroyed in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

63

Most common sign of initial periph. neuropathy in DM
pts is loss of what?
-caused by damage to what?

Loss of vibration sense
-pacinian corpuscles

64

4 cell types in epidermis:

-langerhan dendritic cells, keratinocytes, melanocytes, merkel cells.

65

Endoneurium
-surrounds what?
-inflammatory infiltrate here signals what disease?

-single nerve fiber
-inflammatory infiltrate in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

66

Perineurium
-surrounds what?

-surrounds a fascicle of nerve fibers.
-Must be rejoined in microsurgery for limb reattachment.

67

Epineurium
-surrounds what?

-dense connective tissue that surrounds entire nerve (fascicles and blood vessels).

68

Dopamine
-location of synthesis

-Ventral tegmentum and SNc (midbrain)
*SNc = substantia nigra pars compact

69

Serotonin
-inc or dec in anxiety?
-inc or dec. in parkinsons?

-dec. in anxiety
-inc. in parkinsons

70

Serotonin
-where is it made?

Raphe nucleus (pons, medulla, midbrain)

71

ACh
-where is it made?

Basal nucleus of Meynert

72

ACh
-inc or dec in parkinsons
-inc or dec in Alzheimers
-inc or dec in Huntingtons

-inc. in Parkinson disease
-dec. in Alzheimer disease
-dec. in Huntington disease

73

GABA
-inc or dec. in anxiety?

-dec. in anxiety

74

GABA
-where is it made?

-Nucleus accumbens
*strong association w/addiction.

75

Tight junctions aka:

-zonula occludens.

76

vasogenic edema
-what is it?

-cerebral edema due to infarction and/or neoplasm destroying endothelial cell tight junctions of the BBB.

77

Areas of hypoT not protected by BBB:

-OVLT (organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis) senses change in osmolarity.
-area postrema (responds to emetics)

78

Supraoptic nucleus makes:

ADH.

79

Paraventricular nucleus makes:

oxytocin.

80

HypoT: lateral area
-function?
-mnemonic?
-inhibited by what?

-"Lat makes you Fat"
-controls hunger
-destruction => anorexia
-inhibited by leptin

81

HypoT: Ventromedial area
-function?
-mnemonic?
-stimulated by what?

-If you zap your ventromedial area, you grow ventrally & medially.
-satiety center
-destruction => hyperphagia
-stimulated by leptin.

82

Anterior hypothalamus
-function?
-mnemonic?
-stimulated by what?

-cooling
-A/C = anterior cooling.
-parasympatheticaly stimulated.

83

Posterior hypothalamus
-function?
-stimulated by what?

-heating
-sympathetically stimulated

84

Suprachiasmatic nucleus
-function?
-mnemonic

-Circadian rhythm.
-"Hard to be "super charismatic" when you have jet lag".

85

Suprachiasmatic nucleus
-how does it stimulate pineal gland?
-what does pineal gland release when stimulated?

-Suprachiasmatic nucleus squirts NE onto pineal gland which then releases melatonin.

86

Two stages of sleep:

-rapid-eye movement (REM) and non-REM.

87

Extraocular movements during REM sleep due to activity of:

-PPRF (paramedian pontine reticular formation/conjugate gaze center).

88

How often does REM sleep occur?

Every 90 minutes, and duration increases through the night.

89

What decreases REM & delta wave sleep?

-Alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, & norepinephrine.

90

Bedwetting: Tx:

Oral desmopressin acetate (DDAVP).
-preferred over imipramine.

91

Night terrors and sleepwalking: Tx:

Benzodiazepines

92

What stage of sleep does sleepwalking, night terrors, and
bedwetting occur?

Non-REM: stage N3
-delta wave sleep

93

What stage of sleep does bruxism occur?

Non-REM: stage N2
-Sleep spindles and K complexes

94

Thalamus: VPL nucleus
-inputs?

Spinothalamic & DC/ML

95

Thalamus: VPM nucleus
-inputs?
-mnemonic?

-inputs: trigeminal and gustatory pathway
-"M"akeup goes on the face (vp"M")

96

Thalamus: LGN nucleus
-inputs?
-destination?
-mnemonic?

-input: CN2
-Calcarine sulcus (visual cortex)
-Lateral = Light

97

Thalamus: MGN nucleus
-inputs?
-destination?
-mnemonic?

-input: Superior olive and inferior colliculus of tectum.
-Auditory cortex of temporal lobe.
-"M"edial = "M"usic

98

Thalamus: VL nucleus
-inputs?
-destination?

-inputs: Basal ganglia, cerebellum.
-Motor cortex

99

Limbic system
-involves which sense?

olfaction

100

Cerebellum
-output nerves?

Purkinje cells
-the only output cells of the cerebellum.

101

Which cells in cerebellum are very vulnerable to ischemia?

Purkinje cells

102

Striatum =

= putamen (motor) + caudate (cognitive).

103

Lentiform =

= putamen + globus pallidus.

104

Is amygdala part of basal ganglia?

No, its part of limbic system.

105

Sertraline
-what is it?

SSRI

106

precentral gyrus

primary motor cortex

107

Which vitamin inc. peripheral metabolism of levodopa?

B6

108

Cimetidine
-s/e:

-p450 inhibitor
-anti-androgenic effects
-gynecomastia
-prolactin release
-impotence
-dec. libido
-dec. renal excretion of creatinine

109

What type of drugs are usually more addictive, shorter or longer acting?

shorter acting