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Flashcards in 3/21 BS Deck (78)
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1

Case control study
-prospective or retrospective?
-odds ratio or relative risk?

-retrospective
-odds ratio

2

Clinical trial: Phase 1
-who are the subjects?
-what are you testing?

-Small number of healthy volunteers.
-“Is it safe?” Assesses safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics.

3

Clinical trial: Phase 2
-who are the subjects?
-what are you testing?

-Small number of patients with disease of interest.
-“Does it work?” Assesses treatment efficacy, optimal dosing, and adverse effects.

4

Clinical trial: Phase 3
-who are the subjects?
-what are you testing?

-Large number of patients randomly assigned either to the treatment under investigation or to the best available treatment (or placebo).
-“Is it as good or better?” Compares the new treatment to the current standard of care.

5

Clinical trial: Phase 4
-who are the subjects?
-what are you testing?

-Postmarketing surveillance trial of patients after
approval.
-“Can it stay?” Detects rare or long-term adverse effects. Can result in a drug being withdrawn from market.

6

Vaccine
-whats reduced, incidence or prevalence?

Both

7

Precision
-aka?
-define
-relationship to standard deviation?

-Reliability
-The consistency and reproducibility of a test.
-More precise a test, the smaller the standard deviation.

8

Accuracy
-aka?
-define

-Validity
-The trueness of test measurements. The absence of systematic error or bias in a test.

9

Internal validity:

How well the conclusion corresponds to the real situation in the sample population.

10

Berkson bias
-what type of bias?
-what is it?

-Selection & sampling bias.
-A study looking only at inpatients.

11

Hawthorne effect
-what type of bias?
-what is it?

-Measurement bias
-Groups who know they’re being studied behave differently than they would otherwise.

12

Pygmalion effect
-aka?

-Observer-expectancy bias

13

Lead-time bias
-what is it?

Early detection confused w/inc. survival.
-seen w/improved screening techniques.

14

Lead-time bias
-how do you reduce this bias?

Measure “back-end” survival (adjust survival according to
the severity of disease at the time of diagnosis).

15

Crossover studies
-what is it?

-subjects act as their own controls.

16

Matching
-what is it?

-patients with similar characteristics in both treatment and control groups.
*the matching variables should be the confounders of that study.
-a way to reduce confounding bias.

17

standard error of mean (SEM)
-relationship w/sample size

As (n) increases, SEM decreases.

18

Skew:
-define it

Think of normal bell curve but you grab one side and pull
it a little. If you pull it to the right, its positive skew. And
in ABC order, you drag the Mean, Median, and Mode along with it.

19

Power of a study
-equation:
-what is it?
-aka?

-(1 – β)
-ability to detect a difference btwn groups when a difference truly exists.
-like "true positive".

20

Chi-square (χ²)
-what is it?
-mnemonic?

-Checks difference between 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcomes (not mean values).
-"Pronounce Chi-tegorical"

-Example: comparing the percentage of members of 3 different ethnic groups who have essential hypertension.

21

Coefficient of determination =

-r^2 (value that is usually reported).
-r = Pearson correlation coefficient

22

Disease prevention
-mnemonic?

PST:
-Prevent
-Screen
-Treat

23

Disease prevention: primary

-Prevent disease occurrence (e.g., HPV vaccination).

24

Disease prevention: tertiary

-Treatment to reduce disability from disease (e.g., chemotherapy).

25

Disease prevention: Quaternary

-Identifying patients at risk of unnecessary treatment, protecting from the harm of new interventions.

26

Informed consent requires what 4 things?

-Disclosure
-Understanding
-Mental capacity
-Voluntariness

27

Therapeutic privilege
-what is it?

-withholding information when disclosure would severely
harm the patient or undermine informed decision-making capacity.

28

Situations in which parental consent is usually not required for minors:

-Sex (contraception, STDs, pregnancy)
-Drugs (addiction)
-Rock and roll (emergency/trauma)

*they can get prenatal care BUT 2/3 of the states require parental consent for abortions.

29

Medical power of attorney
-Can a pt revoke it even if hes not competent?

-Yes. Can be revoked anytime patient wishes (regardless of competence).

30

Surrogate decision maker
-order:

Spouse, adult children, parents, adult siblings, other relatives.