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Flashcards in 2/28 renal Deck (95)
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1

Order of metanephros, pronephros, mesonephros.

1-pronephros
2-mesonephros
3-metanephros

2

What does mesonephros eventually contribute to?

Wolffian duct
-internal male structure except prostate.

3

When does the metanephros show up?

5th week.

4

What does ureteric bud give rise to?

From collecting duct til ureter (including ureter).

5

What does Metanephric mesenchyme give rise to?

All of nephron until/except collecting duct.
-starting from glomerulus going til (& including) DCT.

6

Last to canalize in fetal kidney?

Ureteropelvic junction = most common site of obstruction (hydronephrosis) in fetus.

7

-Cause of death in oligohydramnios?
-Causes?

-pulmonary hypoplasia
-ARPKD, posterior urethral valves, bilateral renal agenesis.

8

Horseshoe kidney
-what stops its ascent?
-associated w/what syndrome?
-is renal function affected?
-which poles commonly fused?

-inf mesenteric art.
-Turners
-no
-inf. poles

9

Multicystic dysplastic kidney
-cause?
-function of kidney affected?
-if bilateral, dont confuse w/what?

-Due to abnormal interaction between ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme.
-leads to non-functional kidney.
-polycystic kidney .disease

10

Which kidney is taken during a transplant and why?

Left kidney, longer renal vein.

11

Renal arterial supply:

Ab. aorta => renal => segmental => lobar => interlobar => arcuate => interlobar => afferent => glomerulus.

12

Renal venous path:

glomerulus => efferent arteriole => interlobar v => arcuate => interlobar => renal => IVC

13

Ureters course:

-pass UNDER uterine artery and under ductus deferens (retroperitoneal).

-pass OVER the common/external iliac vessels.

*“Water (ureters) under the bridge (uterine artery, vas deferens).”

14

Gynecologic procedures involving ligation of the uterine vessels: watch out not to damage what?

-ureter, which passes just under uterine artery.

15

What type of epithelium do ureters have?

-transitional

16

-How much of total body weight is water?
-What fraction is intra & extracellular?

-60%
-2/3 intracellular (40% body weight)
-1/3 extracellular (20% body weight)

17

Extracellular fluid
-what fraction is plasma volume vs interstitial volume?

-1/4th plasma volume (5% body weight)
-3/4th interstitial volume (15% body weight)

18

mnemonic for % of body weight for total body water/ICF/ECF.

60–40–20 rule (% of body weight):
-60% total body water
-40% ICF
-20% ECF

19

-Whats used to measure plasma vollume?
-Whats used to measure extracell. volume?

-radiolabeled albumin
-inulin

20

Normal plasma osmolarity

Osmolarity = 290 mOsm/L.
-about double your serum Na b/c Na has +2 charge.

21

What gives basement membrane of glomerulus a negative charge?

heparan sulfate

22

Renal clearance equation:

Cx = UxV/Px

-Cx = clearance of X (mL/min).
-Ux = urine concentration of X (mg/mL).
-V = urine flow rate (mL/min).
-Px = plasma concentration of X (mg/mL).

*-so basically: urine conc = what you take out / what you put in. Then you multiply by how fast you're doing it. And thats clearance.

23

-Cx < GFR:
-Cx > GFR:
-Cx = GFR:

-net tubular reabsorption of X.
-net tubular secretion of X.
-no net secretion or reabsorption (like inulin)

24

-oncotic pressure of bowmans space?
-whats normal GFR?

-normally = 0
-100ml/min

25

Is serum creatinine a sensitive indicator for renal function?

-relationship btwn GFR & creatinine is NOT linear.
-you can have normal creatinine level even w/50% loss of renal fcn.
-So after you lose a significant amount of GFR, after that, small decreases in GFR can cause big increases in blood creatinine levels.
**serum creatinine is not a sensitive indicator for decreasing GFR when creatinine levels are normal.

26

Effective renal plasma flow
-estimated using what?

-clearance of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH).
-ERPF underestimates true renal plasma flow (RPF) by ~10%.

27

-renal blood flow equation
-is ERPF an accurate measure of renal plasma flow (RPF)?

RBF = RPF/(1 - Hct) or RBF(1-hct) = RPF

-ERPF underestimates true renal plasma flow (RPF) by ~10%.

28

Filtration fraction equation:

FF = GFR/RPF

29

-Filtered load equation
-Excretion rate = V × Ux
.

-Filtered load = GFR × Px

-Excretion rate = V × Ux

-Ux = urine concentration of X (mg/mL).
-V = urine flow rate (mL/min).
-Px = plasma concentration of X (mg/mL).

30

-How is glucose resorbed in kidney?
-At what plasma glucose does glucosuria begin?
-At what plasma glucose are all transported fully saturated?

-Glucose at a normal plasma level is completely reabsorbed in proximal tubule by Na+/glucose
cotransport.
-200 mg/dL
-375 mg/dL