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Flashcards in 2/25&2/26 Deck (166)
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1

Velocity of air vs turbulence.
-whats the relation?

Higher the velocity = more turbulence possible.

2

Where is the least airway resistance in bronchial tree?

Terminal bronchioles
-large number in parallel, resistance reduced, airflow reduced, least turbulence.
*dont forget about adding resistance in parallel. It reduces the resistance.

3

How far do the cartilage & goblet cells extend?

-To end of bronchi
-bronchioles dont have it.

4

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells extends to:

-Beginning of terminal bronchioles, then transition to cuboidal cells.

5

Airway smooth muscle extends to:

-end of terminal bronchioles.

6

epithelium of repiratory bronchioles

-cuboidal

7

-epithelium of alveolar ducts?
-what type of cell are type 1 pneumocytes?

-simple squamous
-type 1 pneumocytes = squamous

8

-what type of cell is type 2 pneumocyte?

-cuboidal

9

Where are clara (club) cells found?
-are they ciliated?
-function?

-terminal bronchioles
-non-ciliated low-columnar/cuboidal.
-secrete component of surfactant, degrade toxins.
*has cytochrome P450 enzymes

10

Whats the most important lecithin in surfactant?

-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC).

11

-at what age are mature levels of surfactant reached?

-35 weeks
-production starts at 25 weeks.

12

Lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio
-what ratio signals mature fetal lungs?

>2:1

13

Which lung has lingula?

-left
-homologous to right lung's middle lobe.

14

Aspirate a peanut:
-While upright
-While supine

-lower portion of right inferior lobe.
-superior portion of right inferior lobe, posterior segment of right upper lobe.

15

Relation of the pulmonary artery to the bronchus at
each lung hilus is described by:

RALS
-Right Anterior; Left Superior.

16

What travels w/aorta thru diaphragm?

-thoracic duct & azygos vein.

17

Vital capacity vs total lung capacity

-total lung capacity includes residual volume.

18

What is the greatest contributor to functional dead space?

- apex of healthy lung.

19

physiologic dead space
-what does it include
-whats the equation?

-includes both anatomic and functional dead space.
-Taco, Paco, Peco, Paco

-VD = VT × (Paco2–Peco2)/Paco2

20

Does relaxed or taut Hb have high affinity for O2?

-relaxed
-Relaxed in respiratory tract
-Taut in tissues

21

Inc. or dec. Cl- favors Taut form of Hb (right shift on curve).

inc. Cl
-just like inc. H (dec pH), inc temp, inc 2,3 BPG, etc.

22

Methemoglobinemia
-presents w/what?

-cyanosis & chocolate colored blood.

23

Treating cyanide poisoning: steps:

1-Oxidize Hb to metHb using nitrites (not nitrates).
2-metHb bill bind to cyanide
3-Use thiosulfate to bind this cyanide forming thyocynate which is renally excreted.

24

What drugs can lead to metHb formation?
(aka which drugs can oxidize Hb)

-nitrites, TMP, procaine, metoclopramide.

25

What does O2 graph look like when CO bound to Hb?

-dec efficacy and loses its sigmoidal curve.

26

O2 content equation

-(O2 binding capacity * % sat) + PAO2

*O2 binding capacity = (Hb)(1.34)

27

O2 sat = ?

O2 satured Hb.
-fraction of oxygen saturated Hb relative to total Hb.

28

Anemic: whats her O2 stats like?

-Hb will be dec, but O2 sat will be fine b/c theres less Hb total but still they're all gonna be saturated w/O2.
-PAO2 will be normal.

-O2 content, however, will be decreased.

29

O2 delivery to tissues =

=CO * O2 content

30

Is a healthy persons lungs perfusion or diffusion limited?

perfusion limited.