Flashcards in 2/25&2/26 Deck (166)
Velocity of air vs turbulence.
-whats the relation?
Higher the velocity = more turbulence possible.
Where is the least airway resistance in bronchial tree?
-large number in parallel, resistance reduced, airflow reduced, least turbulence.
*dont forget about adding resistance in parallel. It reduces the resistance.
How far do the cartilage & goblet cells extend?
-To end of bronchi
-bronchioles dont have it.
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells extends to:
-Beginning of terminal bronchioles, then transition to cuboidal cells.
Airway smooth muscle extends to:
-end of terminal bronchioles.
epithelium of repiratory bronchioles
-epithelium of alveolar ducts?
-what type of cell are type 1 pneumocytes?
-type 1 pneumocytes = squamous
-what type of cell is type 2 pneumocyte?
Where are clara (club) cells found?
-are they ciliated?
-secrete component of surfactant, degrade toxins.
*has cytochrome P450 enzymes
Whats the most important lecithin in surfactant?
-at what age are mature levels of surfactant reached?
-production starts at 25 weeks.
-what ratio signals mature fetal lungs?
Which lung has lingula?
-homologous to right lung's middle lobe.
Aspirate a peanut:
-lower portion of right inferior lobe.
-superior portion of right inferior lobe, posterior segment of right upper lobe.
Relation of the pulmonary artery to the bronchus at
each lung hilus is described by:
-Right Anterior; Left Superior.
What travels w/aorta thru diaphragm?
-thoracic duct & azygos vein.
Vital capacity vs total lung capacity
-total lung capacity includes residual volume.
What is the greatest contributor to functional dead space?
- apex of healthy lung.
physiologic dead space
-what does it include
-whats the equation?
-includes both anatomic and functional dead space.
-Taco, Paco, Peco, Paco
-VD = VT × (Paco2–Peco2)/Paco2
Does relaxed or taut Hb have high affinity for O2?
-Relaxed in respiratory tract
-Taut in tissues
Inc. or dec. Cl- favors Taut form of Hb (right shift on curve).
-just like inc. H (dec pH), inc temp, inc 2,3 BPG, etc.
-cyanosis & chocolate colored blood.
Treating cyanide poisoning: steps:
1-Oxidize Hb to metHb using nitrites (not nitrates).
2-metHb bill bind to cyanide
3-Use thiosulfate to bind this cyanide forming thyocynate which is renally excreted.
What drugs can lead to metHb formation?
(aka which drugs can oxidize Hb)
-nitrites, TMP, procaine, metoclopramide.
What does O2 graph look like when CO bound to Hb?
-dec efficacy and loses its sigmoidal curve.
O2 content equation
-(O2 binding capacity * % sat) + PAO2
*O2 binding capacity = (Hb)(1.34)
O2 sat = ?
O2 satured Hb.
-fraction of oxygen saturated Hb relative to total Hb.
Anemic: whats her O2 stats like?
-Hb will be dec, but O2 sat will be fine b/c theres less Hb total but still they're all gonna be saturated w/O2.
-PAO2 will be normal.
-O2 content, however, will be decreased.
O2 delivery to tissues =
=CO * O2 content