Flashcards in 3/16 Repro Deck (123)
-due to what?
incomplete fusion of paramesonephric ducts
Germ cell tumor & inc. T4 & T3.
-whats the connection?
Germ cell tumor releases bHCG which has same alpha-subunit as TSH (and LH & FSH).
-This acts like TSH and causes thyroid to produce more thyroxine!
*bHCG shares significant sequence homology in the beta-subunit w/TSH as well.
Superficial inguinal nodes
-drain what region?
-all cutaneous lymph from umbilicus to the feet including external genitalia & anus (until pectinate line).
*excludes posterior calf which drains to popliteal l.nodes.
main mode of action of OCPs?
suppress synth of FSH and LH.
-leads to inhibition of ovulation (no LH spike).
-also cause thickening of cervical mucus, but this is not the main mode of action.
Which HPV causes warts?
6 & 11
Which HPV can cause cervical carcinoma?
16, 18, 31, 33
-effect w/renal stones?
-high citrate is good, binds calcium and prevents it from precipitating.
direct inguinal hernia
weakness of transversalis fascia.
Sonic hedgehog gene
-patterning along which axis?
-involved in development of what?
-mutation can lead to what?
-Involved in CNS development
-mutation can cause holoprosencephaly.
-Necessary for proper organization along which axis?
-Stimulates mitosis of underlying mesoderm, providing for lengthening of limbs.
Homeobox (Hox) genes
-involved in organization of embryo in which direction?
-mutations lead to what?
-Hox mutations appendages in wrong locations.
2 weeks = 2 layers
When is fetus most susceptible to teratogens?
Weeks 3-8, the "embryonic period".
-this is when organogenesis occurs.
Upper & lower limb buds begin to form
4 weeks = 4 limbs
Heart begins to beat
-4 chambers in your heart
Fetal cardiac activity visible by transvaginal ultrasound.
Genitalia have male/female characteristics.
-what is it?
-what starts it off?
-Process that forms the trilaminar embryonic disc.
-Establishes the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm germ layers.
-Starts with the epiblast invaginating to form the primitive streak.
First 2 layers of the inner cell mass?
-which contributes to the embryo?
epiblast & hypoblast
-epiblast becomes the embryo
What is the epiblasts new cavity?
-it will eventually surround the entire embryo.
which sect of the mesoderm forms the parietal body cavity?
somatic/parietal lateral plate mesoderm
*Amniotic cavity follows it around & now surround the entire embryo. It disconnects from the somatic lateral plate mesoderm.
which sect of the mesoderm forms the gut tube/CT/smooth muscle of gut tube?
visceral/splanchnic lateral plate mesoderm
Neural crest origin
-name some structures
-langerhan cell histiocytosis
Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc.
Deformation vs malformation
Deformation = extrinsic disruption; occurs after the embryonic period.
Malformation = intrinsic disruption; occurs during the embryonic period (weeks 3–8).
Absence of digits
Aplasia cutis congenita