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Flashcards in 3/16 Repro Deck (123)
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1

Bicornuate uterus
-due to what?

incomplete fusion of paramesonephric ducts

2

Germ cell tumor & inc. T4 & T3.
-whats the connection?

Germ cell tumor releases bHCG which has same alpha-subunit as TSH (and LH & FSH).
-This acts like TSH and causes thyroid to produce more thyroxine!

*bHCG shares significant sequence homology in the beta-subunit w/TSH as well.

3

Superficial inguinal nodes
-drain what region?

-all cutaneous lymph from umbilicus to the feet including external genitalia & anus (until pectinate line).
*excludes posterior calf which drains to popliteal l.nodes.

4

main mode of action of OCPs?

suppress synth of FSH and LH.
-leads to inhibition of ovulation (no LH spike).
-also cause thickening of cervical mucus, but this is not the main mode of action.

5

Which HPV causes warts?

6 & 11

6

Which HPV can cause cervical carcinoma?

16, 18, 31, 33

7

citrate
-effect w/renal stones?

-high citrate is good, binds calcium and prevents it from precipitating.

8

direct inguinal hernia
-cause?

weakness of transversalis fascia.

9

Sonic hedgehog gene
-patterning along which axis?
-involved in development of what?
-mutation can lead to what?

-anterior-posterior axis.
-Involved in CNS development
-mutation can cause holoprosencephaly.

10

Wnt-7 gene
-Necessary for proper organization along which axis?

dorsal-ventral axis.

11

FGF gene
-function?

-Stimulates mitosis of underlying mesoderm, providing for lengthening of limbs.

12

Homeobox (Hox) genes
-involved in organization of embryo in which direction?
-mutations lead to what?

-craniocaudal direction
-Hox mutations appendages in wrong locations.

13

Bilaminar disc
-which week?

2 weeks = 2 layers

14

When is fetus most susceptible to teratogens?

Weeks 3-8, the "embryonic period".
-this is when organogenesis occurs.

15

Upper & lower limb buds begin to form
-which week?

4 weeks = 4 limbs

16

Heart begins to beat
-which week?

week 4
-4 chambers in your heart

17

Fetal cardiac activity visible by transvaginal ultrasound.
-which week?

week 6

18

Genitalia have male/female characteristics.
-which week?

week 10

19

gastrulation
-what is it?
-what starts it off?

-Process that forms the trilaminar embryonic disc.
-Establishes the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm germ layers.

-Starts with the epiblast invaginating to form the primitive streak.

20

First 2 layers of the inner cell mass?
-which contributes to the embryo?

epiblast & hypoblast
-epiblast becomes the embryo

21

What is the epiblasts new cavity?

amniotic cavity
-it will eventually surround the entire embryo.

22

which sect of the mesoderm forms the parietal body cavity?

somatic/parietal lateral plate mesoderm
*Amniotic cavity follows it around & now surround the entire embryo. It disconnects from the somatic lateral plate mesoderm.

23

which sect of the mesoderm forms the gut tube/CT/smooth muscle of gut tube?

visceral/splanchnic lateral plate mesoderm

24

Neural crest origin
-which marker?
-name some structures

S-100 (+)
-melanoma
-schwannoma
-langerhan cell histiocytosis

25

Notochord
-adult derivative?

Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc.

26

Deformation vs malformation

Deformation = extrinsic disruption; occurs after the embryonic period.

Malformation = intrinsic disruption; occurs during the embryonic period (weeks 3–8).

27

Absence of digits
-which teratogen?

alkylating agent

28

fingernail hypoplasia
-which teratogen?

Carbamazepine, phenytoin.

29

Aplasia cutis congenita
-which teratogen?

Methimazole

30

Fetal hydantoin syndrome
-which teratogen?
-what is it?

-phenytoin
-microcephaly, dysmorphic craniofacial features, hypoplastic nails and distal phalanges, cardiac defects,
IUGR, intellectual disability