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Flashcards in 4/16 overall Deck (42)
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1
Q

Infections in CGD:

-mnemonic:

A

CGD infected by the SEA.

-Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus.

2
Q

NADPH oxidase

-found in which organelle?

A

phagosomes.

3
Q

Eccrine sweat glands.

  • where are they found?
  • purpose?
  • whats their primary stimulus for secretion?
A
  • all throughout the skin, especially in palms/soles.
  • purpose is for thermoregulation.
  • stimulated by direct sympathetic activity.
4
Q

Appocrine sweat glands.

  • where are they found?
  • purpose?
  • whats their primary stimulus for secretion?
A
  • axillae, genitals, anus = not active until puberty.
  • release oily and viscous sweat.
  • stimulated by circulating catecholamines.
5
Q

Effect of smoking on alveolar macrophages.

A

Smoking inhibits alveolar macrophage action.

6
Q

hemochromatosis

-which HLA?

A

HLA-A3

-A3 looks like F3 = Fe = Iron.

7
Q

Celiac disease

-which HLA?

A

DQ2/DQ8

-cant go to Dairy Queen if you have Celiac Disease.

8
Q

HLA-DR2

  • which diseases?
  • mnemonic:
A

Multiple sclerosis, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture syndrome.

-Must Have Some Good luck to not get any disease if you have this HLA.

9
Q

Diabetes mellitus type 1

  • which HLA?
  • mnemonic?
A

HLA-DR3-4

-Dr. DR3 has no insulin when he was 3 cuz he was broke and had no sugar to eat.

10
Q

SLE

-which HLA?

A

HLA-DR2-3

11
Q

Graves disease

  • which HLA?
  • mnemonic?
A

HLA-DR3

-you’ll never see DR. DR3 in the grave.

12
Q

Rheumatoid arthritis

  • which HLA?
  • mnemonic?
A

HLA-DR4

-There are 4 walls in a “rheum” (room).

13
Q

Hashimoto thyroiditis

  • which HLA?
  • mnemonic?
A

HLA-DR5

-graves is higher in thyroid function but hashi has a higher DR#, 5 compared to 3.

14
Q

Pernicious anemia

-which HLA?

A

HLA-DR5

-same as hashimoto.

15
Q

Ethosuximide

-worst side effect?

A

Steven’s Johnsons Syndrome

16
Q

Which seizure med can cause SIADH?

A

carbamazepine

17
Q

Tramadol

  • mech?
  • mnemonic?
  • tox?
A
  • Very weak opioid agonist; also inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake.
  • works on multiple neurotransmitters—“tram it all” in with tramadol
  • Similar to opioids. Decreases seizure threshold. Serotonin syndrome.
18
Q

Butorphanol

  • mech:
  • tox:
A
  • Mu-opioid receptor partial agonist and kappa-opioid receptor agonist; produces analgesia.
  • Overdose not easily reversed with naloxone.
19
Q

CN V motor lesion

-jaw deviates toward or away from lesion?

A

toward lesion.

*opposite of what I would guess.

20
Q

CN X lesion

-uvula deviates toward or away from lesion?

A

away from lesion

*-uvulA = Away

21
Q

CN XII lesion (LMN)

-tongue deviates toward or away from lesion?

A

toward lesion

*lick your wounds.

22
Q

middle meningeal artery goes through what foramen?

A

foramen spinosum.

23
Q

niacin

-mechanism:

A
  • Inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue.

- reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis.

24
Q

Alar plate

  • ventral or dorsal?
  • motor or sensory?
  • mnemonic?
A

SAD: sensory, dorsal, alar.

25
Q

Most common sign of initial periph. neuropathy in DM
pts is loss of vibration sense.
-which sensory corpuscles affected?

A

Pacinian corpuscles

26
Q

Which sensory corpuscle found in epidermis?

-whats its function?

A

Merkel cells in basal epidermal layer.

-Pressure, deep static touch (e.g., shapes, edges), position sense.

27
Q

Peripheral nerve

-whats the permeability barrier?

A

perineurium.

-Must be rejoined in microsurgery for limb reattachment.

28
Q

antimicrosomal Ab

-which disease?

A

hashimotos

29
Q

ataxia telangiectasia

-deficiency of which Ig?

A

IgA deficiency.

30
Q

LSD abuse

-dilated or constricted pupils?

A

dilated.

31
Q

Obstructive lung disease

  • FVC value?
  • why?
A

Dec.

-cant blow out as much due to the obstruction - some air gets trapped.

32
Q

Digoxin toxicity caused by a diuretic

-which diuretic & how?

A

Furosemide caused hypokalemia and hypokalemia inc. risk of digoxin toxicity.

33
Q

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

  • nephrotic or nephritic?
  • what do you see in glomerulus?
  • mechanism?
A
  • nephrotic
  • segmental sclerosis and hyalinosis.
  • effacement of foot process similar to minimal change disease.

*distinguishing feature = hyaline deposition

34
Q

Most common fetal neoplasm?

A

sacrococcygeal teratoma.

  • remnant of primitive streak.
  • benign & easily resected.
35
Q

hypoalbuminemia seen in CHF

-cause?

A

-dilutional hypoalbuminemia due to excess fluid.

36
Q

Bleomycin vs Busulfan

  • which one has minimal BMS and which one has severe BMS?
  • mnemonic?
A
  • Bleomycin = minimal BMS.
  • Busulfan = severe BMS.

*mnemonic: Busulfan cross links DNA so it has a direct BMS activity. Bleomycin generates free radicals, so it could by change do some damage to bone marrow.

37
Q

I cell disease

-what happens to the proteins that were meant for the lysosome?

A

secreted out of the cell.

-results in many intracellular exclusions.

38
Q

glargine

-what is it?

A

long acting synthetic insulin.

39
Q

glipizide

-what is it?

A

sulfonylurea.

40
Q

metformin

-primary mechanism of action?

A

inhibit gluconeo.

41
Q

IgA nephropathy

  • nephritic or nephrotic?
  • how long after URI/acute gastroenteritis?
A
  • nephritic

- shows up few days later (vs PSGN which shows up few weeks later).

42
Q

SLE - which 2 renal problems?

A
  • Membranous nephropathy (nephrotic)

- Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN)