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Flashcards in 4/16 overall Deck (42):
1

Infections in CGD:
-mnemonic:

CGD infected by the SEA.
-Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus.

2

NADPH oxidase
-found in which organelle?

phagosomes.

3

Eccrine sweat glands.
-where are they found?
-purpose?
-whats their primary stimulus for secretion?

-all throughout the skin, especially in palms/soles.
-purpose is for thermoregulation.
-stimulated by direct sympathetic activity.

4

Appocrine sweat glands.
-where are they found?
-purpose?
-whats their primary stimulus for secretion?

-axillae, genitals, anus = not active until puberty.
-release oily and viscous sweat.
-stimulated by circulating catecholamines.

5

Effect of smoking on alveolar macrophages.

Smoking inhibits alveolar macrophage action.

6

hemochromatosis
-which HLA?

HLA-A3
-A3 looks like F3 = Fe = Iron.

7

Celiac disease
-which HLA?

DQ2/DQ8
-cant go to Dairy Queen if you have Celiac Disease.

8

HLA-DR2
-which diseases?
-mnemonic:

Multiple sclerosis, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture syndrome.
-Must Have Some Good luck to not get any disease if you have this HLA.

9

Diabetes mellitus type 1
-which HLA?
-mnemonic?

HLA-DR3-4
-Dr. DR3 has no insulin when he was 3 cuz he was broke and had no sugar to eat.

10

SLE
-which HLA?

HLA-DR2-3

11

Graves disease
-which HLA?
-mnemonic?

HLA-DR3
-you'll never see DR. DR3 in the grave.

12

Rheumatoid arthritis
-which HLA?
-mnemonic?

HLA-DR4
-There are 4 walls in a “rheum” (room).

13

Hashimoto thyroiditis
-which HLA?
-mnemonic?

HLA-DR5
-graves is higher in thyroid function but hashi has a higher DR#, 5 compared to 3.

14

Pernicious anemia
-which HLA?

HLA-DR5
-same as hashimoto.

15

Ethosuximide
-worst side effect?

Steven's Johnsons Syndrome

16

Which seizure med can cause SIADH?

carbamazepine

17

Tramadol
-mech?
-mnemonic?
-tox?

-Very weak opioid agonist; also inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake.
*works on multiple neurotransmitters—“tram it all” in with tramadol
-Similar to opioids. Decreases seizure threshold. Serotonin syndrome.

18

Butorphanol
-mech:
-tox:

-Mu-opioid receptor partial agonist and kappa-opioid receptor agonist; produces analgesia.
-Overdose not easily reversed with naloxone.

19

CN V motor lesion
-jaw deviates toward or away from lesion?

toward lesion.
*opposite of what I would guess.

20

CN X lesion
-uvula deviates toward or away from lesion?

away from lesion
*-uvulA = Away

21

CN XII lesion (LMN)
-tongue deviates toward or away from lesion?

toward lesion
*lick your wounds.

22

middle meningeal artery goes through what foramen?

foramen spinosum.

23

niacin
-mechanism:

-Inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue.
-reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis.

24

Alar plate
-ventral or dorsal?
-motor or sensory?
-mnemonic?

SAD: sensory, dorsal, alar.

25

Most common sign of initial periph. neuropathy in DM
pts is loss of vibration sense.
-which sensory corpuscles affected?

Pacinian corpuscles

26

Which sensory corpuscle found in epidermis?
-whats its function?

Merkel cells in basal epidermal layer.
-Pressure, deep static touch (e.g., shapes, edges), position sense.

27

Peripheral nerve
-whats the permeability barrier?

perineurium.
-Must be rejoined in microsurgery for limb reattachment.

28

antimicrosomal Ab
-which disease?

hashimotos

29

ataxia telangiectasia
-deficiency of which Ig?

IgA deficiency.

30

LSD abuse
-dilated or constricted pupils?

dilated.

31

Obstructive lung disease
-FVC value?
-why?

Dec.
-cant blow out as much due to the obstruction - some air gets trapped.

32

Digoxin toxicity caused by a diuretic
-which diuretic & how?

Furosemide caused hypokalemia and hypokalemia inc. risk of digoxin toxicity.

33

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
-nephrotic or nephritic?
-what do you see in glomerulus?
-mechanism?

-nephrotic
-segmental sclerosis and hyalinosis.
-effacement of foot process similar to minimal change disease.

*distinguishing feature = hyaline deposition

34

Most common fetal neoplasm?

sacrococcygeal teratoma.
-remnant of primitive streak.
-benign & easily resected.

35

hypoalbuminemia seen in CHF
-cause?

-dilutional hypoalbuminemia due to excess fluid.

36

Bleomycin vs Busulfan
-which one has minimal BMS and which one has severe BMS?
-mnemonic?

-Bleomycin = minimal BMS.
-Busulfan = severe BMS.

*mnemonic: Busulfan cross links DNA so it has a direct BMS activity. Bleomycin generates free radicals, so it could by change do some damage to bone marrow.

37

I cell disease
-what happens to the proteins that were meant for the lysosome?

secreted out of the cell.
-results in many intracellular exclusions.

38

glargine
-what is it?

long acting synthetic insulin.

39

glipizide
-what is it?

sulfonylurea.

40

metformin
-primary mechanism of action?

inhibit gluconeo.

41

IgA nephropathy
-nephritic or nephrotic?
-how long after URI/acute gastroenteritis?

-nephritic
-shows up few days later (vs PSGN which shows up few weeks later).

42

SLE - which 2 renal problems?

-Membranous nephropathy (nephrotic)
-Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN)