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Flashcards in 4/16 overall Deck (42)
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1
Q
Infections in CGD:
-mnemonic:
A
CGD infected by the SEA.
-Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus.
2
Q
NADPH oxidase
-found in which organelle?
A
phagosomes.
3
Q
Eccrine sweat glands.
-where are they found?
-purpose?
-whats their primary stimulus for secretion?
A
-all throughout the skin, especially in palms/soles.
-purpose is for thermoregulation.
-stimulated by direct sympathetic activity.
4
Q
Appocrine sweat glands.
-where are they found?
-purpose?
-whats their primary stimulus for secretion?
A
-axillae, genitals, anus = not active until puberty.
-release oily and viscous sweat.
-stimulated by circulating catecholamines.
5
Q
Effect of smoking on alveolar macrophages.
A
Smoking inhibits alveolar macrophage action.
6
Q
hemochromatosis
-which HLA?
A
HLA-A3
-A3 looks like F3 = Fe = Iron.
7
Q
Celiac disease
-which HLA?
A
DQ2/DQ8
-cant go to Dairy Queen if you have Celiac Disease.
8
Q
HLA-DR2
-which diseases?
-mnemonic:
A
Multiple sclerosis, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture syndrome.
-Must Have Some Good luck to not get any disease if you have this HLA.
9
Q
Diabetes mellitus type 1
-which HLA?
-mnemonic?
A
HLA-DR3-4
-Dr. DR3 has no insulin when he was 3 cuz he was broke and had no sugar to eat.
10
Q
SLE
-which HLA?
A
HLA-DR2-3
11
Q
Graves disease
-which HLA?
-mnemonic?
A
HLA-DR3
-you'll never see DR. DR3 in the grave.
12
Q
Rheumatoid arthritis
-which HLA?
-mnemonic?
A
HLA-DR4
-There are 4 walls in a “rheum” (room).
13
Q
Hashimoto thyroiditis
-which HLA?
-mnemonic?
A
HLA-DR5
-graves is higher in thyroid function but hashi has a higher DR#, 5 compared to 3.
14
Q
Pernicious anemia
-which HLA?
A
HLA-DR5
-same as hashimoto.
15
Q
Ethosuximide
-worst side effect?
A
Steven's Johnsons Syndrome
16
Q
Which seizure med can cause SIADH?
A
carbamazepine
17
Q
Tramadol
-mech?
-mnemonic?
-tox?
A
-Very weak opioid agonist; also inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake.
*works on multiple neurotransmitters—“tram it all” in with tramadol
-Similar to opioids. Decreases seizure threshold. Serotonin syndrome.
18
Q
Butorphanol
-mech:
-tox:
A
-Mu-opioid receptor partial agonist and kappa-opioid receptor agonist; produces analgesia.
-Overdose not easily reversed with naloxone.
19
Q
CN V motor lesion
-jaw deviates toward or away from lesion?
A
toward lesion.
*opposite of what I would guess.
20
Q
CN X lesion
-uvula deviates toward or away from lesion?
A
away from lesion
*-uvulA = Away
21
Q
CN XII lesion (LMN)
-tongue deviates toward or away from lesion?
A
toward lesion
*lick your wounds.
22
Q
middle meningeal artery goes through what foramen?
A
foramen spinosum.
23
Q
niacin
-mechanism:
A
-Inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue.
-reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis.
24
Q
Alar plate
-ventral or dorsal?
-motor or sensory?
-mnemonic?
A
SAD: sensory, dorsal, alar.
25
Q
Most common sign of initial periph. neuropathy in DM
pts is loss of vibration sense.
-which sensory corpuscles affected?
A
Pacinian corpuscles
26
Q
Which sensory corpuscle found in epidermis?
-whats its function?
A
Merkel cells in basal epidermal layer.
-Pressure, deep static touch (e.g., shapes, edges), position sense.
27
Q
Peripheral nerve
-whats the permeability barrier?
A
perineurium.
-Must be rejoined in microsurgery for limb reattachment.
28
Q
antimicrosomal Ab
-which disease?
A
hashimotos
29
Q
ataxia telangiectasia
-deficiency of which Ig?
A
IgA deficiency.
30
Q
LSD abuse
-dilated or constricted pupils?
A
dilated.
31
Q
Obstructive lung disease
-FVC value?
-why?
A
Dec.
-cant blow out as much due to the obstruction - some air gets trapped.
32
Q
Digoxin toxicity caused by a diuretic
-which diuretic & how?
A
Furosemide caused hypokalemia and hypokalemia inc. risk of digoxin toxicity.
33
Q
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
-nephrotic or nephritic?
-what do you see in glomerulus?
-mechanism?
A
-nephrotic
-segmental sclerosis and hyalinosis.
-effacement of foot process similar to minimal change disease.

*distinguishing feature = hyaline deposition
34
Q
Most common fetal neoplasm?
A
sacrococcygeal teratoma.
-remnant of primitive streak.
-benign & easily resected.
35
Q
hypoalbuminemia seen in CHF
-cause?
A
-dilutional hypoalbuminemia due to excess fluid.
36
Q
Bleomycin vs Busulfan
-which one has minimal BMS and which one has severe BMS?
-mnemonic?
A
-Bleomycin = minimal BMS.
-Busulfan = severe BMS.

*mnemonic: Busulfan cross links DNA so it has a direct BMS activity. Bleomycin generates free radicals, so it could by change do some damage to bone marrow.
37
Q
I cell disease
-what happens to the proteins that were meant for the lysosome?
A
secreted out of the cell.
-results in many intracellular exclusions.
38
Q
glargine
-what is it?
A
long acting synthetic insulin.
39
Q
glipizide
-what is it?
A
sulfonylurea.
40
Q
metformin
-primary mechanism of action?
A
inhibit gluconeo.
41
Q
IgA nephropathy
-nephritic or nephrotic?
-how long after URI/acute gastroenteritis?
A
-nephritic
-shows up few days later (vs PSGN which shows up few weeks later).
42
Q
SLE - which 2 renal problems?
A
-Membranous nephropathy (nephrotic)
-Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN)