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Flashcards in 3/7 endo Deck (105)
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1

A drug is virtually eliminated after how many half lives?

-5

t1/2 = Vd (.7)/Cl

2

Acute viral hepatitis
-do you see necrosis or apoptosis?

-both

3

Councilman body

-apoptotic hepatocytes
-acidophillic

4

IV drug user w/hepatitis
-which hepatitis most likely?

-Hep C

5

beta-glucoronidase
-who releases it?
-what does it lead to?

-following infection of biliary tree, injured hepatocytes and bacteria release this enzyme.
-unconjugates bili = more unconjugated bili in bile = brown pigment stone.

6

Progesterone & gallstones

-slows gallbladder emptying
-reduces bile acid secretion
*gallbladder hypomotility => stones

7

Why are pregnant or OCP using women more at risk for gallstones?

-inc cholesterol synth via estrogen.
-gallbladder hypomotility via progesterone.

8

Bimodal distribution of plasma drug levels
-think of what?
*most drugs = unimodal

-fast v slow acetylators.

9

What is the most common benign liver tumor?

-cavernous hemangioma.
*do NOT biopsy these! risk of hemorrhage!

10

Thyroid diverticulum
-arises from where? descends to where?
-connected to tongue via?

-arises from floor of primitive pharynx, and descends into neck.
-Connected to tongue by thyroglossal duct, which normally disappears but may persist as pyramidal lobe of thyroid.

11

pyramidal lobe of thyroid
-persistence of what?

thyroglossal duct

12

Normal remnant of thyroglossal duct

Foramen cecum

13

Foramen cecum

Normal remnant of thyroglossal duct

14

Most common ectopic thyroid tissue site?

Tongue
-presents as mass at base of the tongue.

15

Presents as an anterior midline neck mass that moves with swallowing or protrusion of the tongue

Thyroglossal duct cyst

16

Adrenal cortex derived from...

mesoderm

17

Adrenal medulla derived from..

neural crest

18

Is aldo secretion controlled by ACTH?

NO
-AT2 and hyperkalemia.

19

adrenal medulla
-under control of what?

Blood pressure
-sympathetic response

20

Does LH affect steroid hormone synthesis in adrenals?

No
-only affects gonadal cells.

21

Neuroblastoma vs pheochromocytoma
-which one causes HTN?

-pheo causes episodic HTN.
-neuroblastoma rarely causes HTN.

22

Neuroblastoma
-presentation

-often presents w/abdominal distention.
-it typically crosses the midline (unlike Wilm's tumor).

23

Hypophysis
-what is it?

Entire pituitary

24

What protein transfers ADH & oxytocin from hypothalamus down to post. pit?
-mutations in this protein can lead to what?

-neurophysins
-point mutations to neurophysin 2 underlie most cases of hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus.

25

Post pit. derived from what?

Neuroectoderm

26

Ant pit. derived from what?

Oral ectoderm (Rathke pouch).

27

Ant. pit hormones
-alpha or beta subunit: which determines hormone's specificity?

β subunit—determines hormone specificity.

28

Ant. pit hormones:
-Same α subunit shared by which hormones?
ƒ

TSH, LH, FSH, and hCG.

29

Ant. pit hormones:
-which hormones = acidophils?
-mnemonic?

-GH, prolactin.
-GPA: GH, Prolactin = Acidophils.

30

Ant. pit hormones:
-which hormones = basophils?
-mnemonic?

-B-FLAT
-basophils - FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH