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Flashcards in 4/20 CV/overall Deck (86)
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1

intracerebral neoplasms
-what are 2 ways they can increase ICP?

1-obstruction of CSF flow.
2-disruption of BBB (inc vascular permeability => vasogenic edema).

2

construction worker w/muscle spasms (starting w/jaw)
-most likely problem?

tetanus
-rusty nail.

3

Causes of nephrogenic DI?

-hereditary
-hypercalcemia
-lithium
-demeclocycline (ADH antagonist)

4

Connection btwn a lung nodule & nephrogenic DI?

lung nodule may be squamous cell carcinoma and may produce PTHrP.
-Hypercalcemia can produce nephrogenic DI by down-regulating expression of aquaporins in collecting duct.

5

How does hypercalcemia cause nephrogenic DI?

-down-regulating expression of aquaporins in collecting duct.
-causes resistance to ADH action.

6

clopidogrel & P450 inhibitors
-whats the relationship?

clopidogrel is a prodrug that needs P450 system to activate it.
-P450 inhibitors will dec its activation then.

7

DNA coding strand
-definition:

The DNA strand which has the same base sequence as the RNA transcript produced (although with thymine replaced by uracil).

8

DNA coding strand
-definition:

The DNA strand which has the same base sequence as the RNA transcript produced (although with thymine replaced by uracil).
-this is the strand which contains the codons.
-its the anti-coding strand that gets transcribed.

9

Which DNA strand gets transcribed, the coding or non-coding strand?

The non-coding strand gets transcribed.

10

DNA coding strand
-aka?

-sense.
-non-template.

*the template is what mRNA made from and you know that one is not the coding strand.

11

Trabeculated part of ventricles
-derived from?

primitive ventricles.

12

Trabeculated part of ventricles
-derived from?

primitive ventricle.

13

Trabeculated part of atria
-derived from?

primitive atrium.

14

Trabeculated part of atria
-derived from?

primitive atria.

15

Smooth part of left atrium
-derived from?

pulmonary veins.

*makes sense bc pulm veins drain into left atrium & veins are smooth.

16

Smooth part of left atrium
-derived from?

primitive pulmonary vein.

*makes sense bc pulm veins drain into left atrium & veins are smooth.

17

Coronary sinus
-derived from?

left horn of sinus venosus

*makes sense bc it is a venous sinus that drains the left side (as opposed to the "right side" which was the systemic circ).

18

Coronary sinus
-derived from?

left horn of sinus venosus

*makes sense bc it is a venous sinus that drains the left side (as opposed to the "right side" which was the systemic circ = just think that heart is on your left side and it drains your heart).

19

Smooth part of both ventricles
-derived from?

bulbus cordis

20

Smooth part of right atrium
-derived from?

right horn of sinus venosus

*makes sense: sinus venosus = the sinus
of all the veins in the body do dump into
the right atrium.

21

SVC
-derived from?

right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein.

22

foramen secundum
-forms in...
-its remnant is called?

-formed in septum primum.
-foramen ovale (what ever is not covered by the septum secundum).

23

endocardial cushions separate which compartments from each other?

atria from venticles.

24

heart valves derived from?

all valves derived from endocardial cushions.

25

umbilical vein
-whats its remnant?
-whats its remnant contained in? which ligament?

-Ligamentum teres hepatis.
-Contained in falciform ligament.

*umbilical vein kind of enters the liver a little bit - you know the umbilical artery has nothing to do w/the liver so if you have to choose btwn umb vein or art - must choose umb vein.

26

allantois
-becomes which ligament?
-mnemonic?

-urachus
-median umbilical ligament
*bladder is exactly in the middle.

27

UmbiLical arteries
-whats its remnant?

MediaL umbilical ligaments.

28

Left-dominant circulation
-PDA arises from?

LCX

29

Fick equation:

= rate of O2 consumption / (A-V O2 content)

30

ASD murmur?

-Presents with a pulmonary flow murmur (↑ flow through pulmonary valve) and a diastolic rumble (↑ flow across tricuspid).
-The murmur later progresses to a louder diastolic murmur of pulmonic regurgitation from dilatation of the pulmonary artery.