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Flashcards in 3/30 micro Deck (213):
1

Lipoteichoic acid
-where is it found?
-induces what?

Gram (+) cell wall.
-teichoic acids only found in gram (+)s.
-induces TNF & IL-1.

2

Outer membrane
-whats the antigen?

O polysaccharide

3

Periplasm
-where is it?
-found in which bugs?

-space btwn cytoplasmic membrane & outer membrane in gram (-) bugs.
-this is the location of beta-lactamases.

4

dipicolinic acid
-where is this found?

In a spore.

5

Capsule
-gram (+) or (-)?

Both can have it.

6

Peptidoglycan
-gram (+) or (-)?

Both

7

Which bugs are pleomorphic?

Rickettsia & chlamydia.

8

Which bug has no cell wall?

mycoplasma

9

Chlamydia
-what does it lack in its cell wall?

muramic acid

10

Mucicarmine
-helps visualize what?

Capsule

11

India ink/mucicarmine stain shows bug
-think what?

Cryptococcus neoformans

12

Chocolate agar with factors V (NAD+) and X (hematin)
-which bug?

H. influenzae

13

Thayer-Martin
-whats in it?

VPN media
-Vancomycin (inhibits gram-positive organisms)
-Polymyxin (inhibits gram-negative organisms except Neisseria)
-Nystatin (inhibits fungi)

*“to connect to Neisseria, please use your VPN client”

14

Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar
-which bug?

Bordetella pertussis

15

Regan-Lowe medium
-which bug?

Bordetella pertussis

16

Tellurite agar, Löffler medium
-which bug?

C. diphtheriae

17

Löwenstein-Jensen agar
-which bug?

M. tuberculosis

18

Eaton agar, requires cholesterol
-which bug?

M. pneumoniae

19

Pink colonies on MacConkey agar
-which type of bugs?

Lactose-fermenting enterics

20

How does E. coli look on EMB agar?

-colonies with green metallic sheen

21

Charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with cysteine & iron
-which bug?

Legionella

22

Sabouraud agar
-which bug?

Fungi
*“Sab’s a fun guy!”

23

Obligate aerobes
-name them:
-mnemonic:

Nocardia, Pseudomonas, & MycoBacterium tuberculosis.
*Nagging Pests Must Breathe.

24

Obligate anaerobes
-name them:
-mnemonic:

Clostridium, Bacteroides, and Actinomyces

*Can’t Breathe Air.

25

Obligate anaerobes
-which enzymes do they lack?
-unique characteristics?

-catalase &/or superoxide dismutase
-Generally foul smelling (short-chain fatty acids), are difficult to culture, and produce gas in tissue (CO2 &H2).

26

Which type of ABx is useless against anaerobes bc it req O2 to enter bacterial cell?

aminoglycosides

27

Obligate intracellular
-which bugs?
-mnemonic:

Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Coxiella burnetti.
*Stay inside (cells) when it is Really Cold.

28

Encapsulated bacteria
-name them
-mnemonic

SHiNE SKiS.
-Strep pneumoniae
-H. influenzae type B
-N. meningitidis
-E. coli
-Salmonella
-Klebsiella pneumoniae
-group B Strep

29

Vaccine for encapsulated bugs
-must include what?

-Capsule + protein conjugate serves as an antigen in vaccines.

30

Aplenic pt
-give them which vaccines?

Give S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, N. meningitidis vaccines.

31

Catalase-positive organisms
-name them
-mnemonic:

You need PLACESS for your cats.
Pseudomonas, Listeria, Aspergillus, Candida, E. coli, S. aureus, Serratia.

32

Why conjugate a capsular antigen w/a protein?

-A polysacc. Ag alone cannot be presented to T cells.
-Conjugating it w/a protein enhances immunogenicity by
promoting T-cell activation and subsequent class switching.

33

Pneumococcal vaccine
-which vaccine = conjugated to protein
-which vaccine is not?

-PCV (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, i.e., Prevnar)
-PPSV (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine with
no conjugated protein, i.e., Pneumovax)

34

Name the conjugate vaccines:

-PCV (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine)
-H. influenzae type B (conjugate vaccine)
-Meningococcal vaccine (conjugate vaccine)

35

Urease-positive bugs
-name them
-mnemonic:

CHuck Norris hates PUNKSS.
-Cryptococcus
-H. pylori
-Proteus
-Ureaplasma
-Nocardia
-Klebsiella
-S. epidermidis
-S. saprophyticus.

36

Protein A
-whats it do?
-which bug is it found in?

-Binds Fc region of IgG. Prevents opsonization and phagocytosis.
-Expressed by S. aureus.

37

Which bugs secrete IgA protease?
-mnemonic?

SHiN
-S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B, and Neisseria

38

M protein
-whats it do?
-which bug is it found in?

-Helps prevent phagocytosis.
-Expressed by group A streptococci.

39

Exotoxin
-coded by?

Plasmid or bacteriophage

40

Endotoxin
-coded by?

Bacterial chromosome

41

Exotoxin vs endotoxin
-which one more toxic?

Exotoxin much more toxic.

42

Exotoxin vs endotoxin
-which one is antigenic?

-Exotoxin = antigenic, induces high-titer antibodies called antitoxins.
-Endotoxin = poorly antigenic

43

Exotoxin vs endotoxin
-vaccine available?

-Exotoxin: Toxoids used as vaccines.
-Endotoxin: No toxoids formed and no vaccine available

44

toxoid
-define:

Exotoxin thats been partially denatured by formalin, acid, or heat.

45

Exotoxin vs endotoxin
-heat stability:

-exotoxin: Destroyed rapidly at 60°C=140F (except staphylococcal enterotoxin).
-endotoxin: Stable at 100°C=212F(=BP of water) for 1 hr.

46

A-B exotoxin
-function of A subunit?
-function of B subunit?

-A subunit = active subunit w/toxin activity
-B subunit = binds to host, involved w/entry.

47

Which bugs' toxin:
-Inactivate elongation factor (EF-2).

-C. diphtheriae = Diphtheria toxin
-Pseudomonas = Exotoxin A

*both = ADP ribosylating A-B toxins.

48

Which bugs' toxin:
-Inactivate 60S ribosome by removing adenine from rRNA.

-Shigella = shigatoxin
-EHEC (including O157:H7) = shiga-like toxin

*both = ADP ribosylating A-B toxins.

49

Shiga toxin
-what can it cause?

-dysentery & HUS.

50

Shigella vs EHEC
-difference?

EHEC does not invade host cells.

51

Shiga-like toxin
-what can it cause?

HUS

52

EHEC: shiga like toxin
-targets which types of cells?

EHEC frequently causes HUS b/c the toxin targets
colonic mucosal cells AND renal endothelial cells

53

Which bugs make toxins that cause inc. fluid secretion?

ETEC, cholera, Bacillus anthracis.

54

ETEC:
-what are its 2 toxins & what do they do?

1) LT (heat-labile toxin) = inc. cAMP = Cl secretion into gut & water follows = diarrhea.

2)ST (heat-stabile toxin) = inc. cGMP = dec. NaCl & H2O resorption in gut = diarrhea.

55

ETEC: 2 toxins
-mnemonic:

Watery diarrhea:
-Labile in the Air (Adenylate cyclase), Stable on the Ground (Guanylate cyclase).

56

Bacillus anthracis
-whats its toxin that causes fluid secretion?
-hows it work?

Edema factor = mimics cAMP = Likely responsible for characteristic edematous borders of black eschar in cutaneous anthrax.

57

Vibrio cholerae
-toxin?
-mech?

Cholera toxin = permanently activates Gs = inc. cAMP = inc Cl secretion into the gut = diarrhea.

*Voluminous “rice-water” diarrhea.

58

Bordetella pertussis
-whats its toxin?
-whats it do?

Pertussis toxin = disabled Gi = inc. cAMP = impairs phagocytosis to permit survival of microbe.
-Whooping cough: the toxin may not be the cause of the cough.

59

Bordetella pertussis
-what are the 3 stages?
-in which one is pt most contagious?
-in which stage are the "whoops".

1) Catarrhal = most contagious.
2)Paroxysmal = whooping cough
3)Convalescent stage

60

Bordetella pertussis
-where does it infect?
-does it cause productive or non-productive cough?

-Invades resp. tract & attaches (via filamentous hemagluttinin) to ciliated epithelium of trachea/bronchi.
-Evades immune response and destroys the ciliated cells causing whooping cough.
-non-productive cough bc cilia is destroyed.

61

Does bordetella pertussis invade the body?

No.
-It attaches to ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchi and then releases its exotoxins.
-The FHA, a pili rod extending from its surface, is involved in this binding. Antibodies directed against the FHA prevent binding and disease, and thus they are protective.

62

Bordetella pertussis
-how does it damage the ciliated cells?

Tracheal cytotoxin: This toxin destroys the ciliated epithelial cells, resulting in impaired clearance of bacteria, mucus, and inflammatory exudate. This toxin is probably responsible for the violent cough.

63

Which bugs have exotoxins that inhibit release of NTs?

C. tetani & C. botulinum.

64

C. tetani & C. botulinum
-which one causes flaccid paralysis?
-which one causes spastic paralysis?

-Tetani = spastic
-Botulinum = flaccid

*if botox was spastic, it would be against the point cuz then you'd get wrinkles. Whole point is to make the muscle remain flaccid.

65

Presentation of botulinum poisoning?

-Initially = diplopia & dysphagia.
-Followed by general muscle weakness, which rapidly leads to sudden respiratory paralysis and death.

66

Which bugs have exotoxins that lyse cell membranes?
-what are their toxins called?

-C. perfringens = Alpha toxin = Phospholipase(lecithinase)

-S. pyogenes = Streptolysin O = lyses RBCs

67

What will WBC count look like in pertussis infection?

It will look like a viral infection = more lymphocytes than neutros.

68

Which bugs have superantigens that can cause shock?
-name the toxins:

-S. aureus = Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1)

-S. pyogenes = Exotoxin A

69

How do superantigens work?
-what chemicals do they cause to be released?

-Bring MHC II and TCR in proximity to outside of antigen binding site to cause overwhelming release of IFN-γ and IL-2 => shock.

70

Toxic shock syndrome:
-Sxs:

Fever, rash, shock.

71

How does endotoxin lead to DIC?
-activates what mediator?

Activates tissue factor

72

Tissue factor
-aka?
-which coag. pathway does it activate?

-aka thromboplastin
-Extrinsic pathway.

73

Which bugs use transformation more than most?
-mnemonic:
-what else do these bugs have in common?

SHiN
-S. pneumoniae
-H. influenzae type B
-Neisseria

*these all have IgA protease.

74

Bacterial Conjugation: F+ × F–
-whats transferred?
-are chromosomal genes transferred?
-is plasmid transferred?

-plasmid is replicated and transferred.
-no chromosomal genes are transferred.

*key = plasmid is replicated first, so after conjugation, both bugs are F+.

75

If F+ plasmid is incorporated into bacterial chromosomal DNA, what do you call it?

-termed high-frequency recombination (Hfr) cell.

76

Bacterial Conjugation: Hfr × F–
-whats transferred?
-are chromosomal genes transferred?
-is plasmid transferred?

-Replication of incorporated plasmid DNA may include some flanking chromosomal DNA.
-Transfer of plasmid and chromosomal genes.

77

Transposition
-how can this lead to ABx resistance spread?

-Segment of DNA (transposon) that can “jump” (excision and reintegration) from one location to another, can transfer genes from plasmid to chromosome and vice versa.
-When excision occurs, may include some flanking chromosomal DNA, which can be incorporated into a plasmid and transferred to another bacterium.
-Examples include antibiotic resistance genes on R plasmid.

78

Genes for the following 5 bacterial toxins are encoded in a lysogenic phage:
-mnemonic:

ABCDE
-ShigA-like toxin
-Botulinum toxin (certain strains)
-Cholera toxin
-Diphtheria toxin
-Erythrogenic toxin of S. pyogenes (scarlet fever)

79

Gram (+) rods
-name them
-mnemonic:

from CC to MLB - Grant uses a rod (baseball bat).
-Clostridium (anaerobe)
-Corynebacterium
-Listeria
-Bacillus (aerobe)
-Mycobacterium

80

Bile soluble
-does it survive in bile?

No
-its lysed in bile.

81

Which bug grows in 6.5% NaCl?

Enterococcus

82

α-hemolytic bacteria
-what color ring in blood agar?

green

83

β-hemolytic bacteria
-what color ring in blood agar?

clear area

84

Coagulase
-how does it cause coagulation?
-what does coagulase allow the bug to do?

-Activates prothrombin.
-form a fibrin clot around itself => abscess.

85

S. Aureus
-commonly colonizes where?

Nose

86

Minor skin infections are usually caused by which bugs?

Almost exclusively caused by either S. pyogenes (GAS) or by S. aureus.

87

Scalded skin syndrome
-which bug?
-which toxin?
-mechanism?
-which disease has similar process going on?

-S. aureus = exfoliative toxin
-Toxin cleaves desmoglein in desmosomes of skin, which attach keratinocytes together in stratum spinosum.

*Pemphigus vulgaris = IgG against desmoglein.

88

S. aureus
-toxic shock: which toxin?
-why were women getting this disease more than men?

-tampons and TSST-1 from staph aureus.

89

MRSA
-how did it gain resistance to methicillin & nafcillin?

Altered penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs)
-transpeptidase = PBP

90

S. Aureus
-problems caused by exotoxin release:

-gastroenteritis
-toxic shock
-scalded skin syndrome

91

Endocarditis of artificial heart valves
-which bug?
-Tx:

S. epidermidis
-vanco

92

Strep Pneumo
-main disease it causes:
-mnemonic:

MOPS
-meningitis
-otitis media (in children)
-pneumonia
-sinusitis

93

Strep Pneumo
-whats it look like?

lancet-shaped, gram (+) diplococci.
-encapsulated
-IgA protease

94

Strep pneumo has no virulence w/o its _______.

Capsule

95

Strep viridans:
-which one causes dental caries?

Streptococcus mutans

96

Strep viridans:
-which one causes subacute bacterial endocarditis at damaged valves?
-what allows it to infect the cardiac valves?

S. sanguinis
-These bacteria produce an extracellular dextran which bind to fibrin-platelet aggregates on damaged heart valves.
-dextrans also allow binding to tooth enamel.

97

Which bug synthesizes dextrans from glucose?
-and what does it allow it to bind to?

Strep. viridans => S. sanguinis
-which bind to fibrin-platelet aggregates on damaged heart valves.
-also allows binding to tooth enamel.

*this is why it causes subacute endo, needs fibrin aggregates to attach to the valves. So need previous
damage.

98

Scalded skin syndrome = from which bug?

S. aureus

99

Scarlet fever = from which bug?

Strep. pyogenes.

100

M-protein
-seen in which bug?
-function?
-Abs to it: pros & cons?

-Strep. pyogenes
-prevents phagocytosis
-Abs against M-protein enhance host defense BUT can give rise to rheumatic fever bc they're very similar to cardiac myocyte myosin chain = molecular mimicry.

101

ASO titers
-good for detecting what?

Recent S. pyogenes infection
-these Ab titers only high during during infection.

102

Strep. pyogenes: rheumatic fever
-what are criteria for Dx rheumatic fever?

J♥NES criteria for rheumatic fever
-Joints—polyarthritis
-♥—carditis
-Nodules (subcutaneous)
-Erythema marginatum
-Sydenham chorea

103

PSGN
-preceded by what?

strep pyogenes pharyngitis OR impetigo.
*Impetigo more commonly precedes glomerulonephritis than pharyngitis.

104

rheumatic fever
-preceded by what?

strep pyogenes pharyngitis

105

Scarlet fever
-which bug?
-mechanism?
-Sxs:

-strep pyogenes
-Exotoxin (pyrogenic/erythrogenic) = produces fever (so it is pyrogenic) and causes a scarlet-red rash.
-The rash begins on the trunk and neck, and then spreads to the extremities, sparing the face. The skin may peel off in fine scales during healing.
-scarlet rash with sandpaper-like texture, strawberry tongue, circumoral pallor.

106

Scarlet fever
-how does the erythrogenic toxin cause the rash/desquamation?

Erythrogenic toxin is known to damage the plasma membranes of blood capillaries under the skin and produce a red skin rash.

107

Scarlet fever vs Kawasaki
-what does kawasakis have that scarlet fever doesnt?

Kawasakis has bilateral conjunctivitis.

108

Neonatal meningitis vs adult meningitis
-difference in presentation?

neonatal meningitis may not present w/stiff neck.

109

GBS
-what diseases can it cause?

Pneumonia, meningitis, strep.

110

Mucormycosis
-affects what type of pts?

DKA & immunosuppressed.
-ie. leukemic pts.

111

Aspergillus vs Mucor
-diff in appearance?

-Mucor = 90 degree angles, non-septate.
-Aspergillus = 45 degree angles, septate.

112

EHEC: verotoxin
-aka?

shiga-like toxin

113

Neonatal meningitis: 0-3 months
-#1 cause?

GBS
-followed by E.coli & Listeria.

114

Meningitis: > 3 months old (infants and adults)
-cause?

-Strep pneumo
-N. meningitidus

115

Rubeola
-aka?

Measles

116

Measles
-Sxs:
-mnemonic:

3 C's
-Cough. coryza, conjunctivitis.
+ koplik spots.

117

Coccidio vs histo
-distinguishing the spherule vs macro.

-coccidio = spherule filled w/endospores = much LARGER than RBC.
-histo = macro filled w/histo = smaller than RBC.

118

Rotavirus
-which family of viruses?

Reovirus

119

Most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries:

campylobacter

120

Negative sense RNA viruses:
-what must they carry w/them in order to be infectious?

RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase.

121

recurrent C.dif colitis
-what drug = oral w/little systemic absorption?

fidaxomicin = bacteriocidal
*vanc = bacteriostatic.

122

Which ones the pinworm?
-Tx:

Enterobius vermicularis
-scotch tape one.
-albendazole or pyrantel pamoate.

123

environmental influences permitting toxin synthesis
-which bugs?

gram (+) spore forming rods
-Bacillus & clostridium
-once spores germinate they can start making spores.
-Need proper environment to germinate.

124

Why is primaquine added to chloroquine tx of P.vivax/ovale?

To prevent recurrence by killing the dormant hypnozoites in the liver.

125

P. vivax & P. ovale
-how often does the fever occur?

every 48 hrs.

126

Prevention of neonatal tetanus:

vaccinating the pregnant mother.
-IgG will cross placenta.

127

Central catheters
-is the femoral vein a good place for them?

NO
-avoid femoral placement!

128

acute rheumatic fever
-can it occur after GAS impetigo?

No
-just pharyngitis.

129

Pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) test:
-replaced what other test?
-which bug is (+)?

-replaced bacitracin test.
-S. pyogenes = PYR (+).

130

Pseduohyphae
-think what?

candida

131

Kinesin
-direction:

anterograde (takes vesicles from neuron soma to axon terminal).
(-) => (+)

*(+) end of MT is at axon terminal.
*(-) end of MT is in neuron soma

132

Dynein
-direction

retrograde
(+) => (-)

133

2 most common causes of hematogenous osteomyelitis

#1 = s. aureus
#2 = strep. pyogenes

134

What skin lesion can pseudomonas cause?
-in which type of pts?

-ecthyma gangrenosum in immunocompromised pts.

135

What is CAMP factor and who makes it?

-GBS makes CAMP factor.
-enlarges area of hemolysis formed by s. aureus.

136

What week of gestation do women get screened for GBS?
-if positive, when do they get which ABx?

-Screen pregnant women at 35–37 weeks.
-Patients with (+) culture receive intrapartum penicillin prophylaxis.

137

GBS strep
-main virulence factor

capsule

138

Enterococci
-which lancefield group?

D

139

Group D strep: non-enterococci
-name it:

strep. bovis

140

Subacute endocarditis in colon cancer patients
-which bug?

Group D strep
-strep bovis.
-or enterococcus s/p GU/GI operations.

141

Group D strep
-how to differentiate enterococci vs strep bovis?

Only enterococci can grow in 6.5% NaCl, bovis can not.
-both can grow in bile.

142

Corynebacterium diphtheriae
-how does it get its exotoxin?
-mechanism of exotoxin?

-β-prophage
-Potent exotoxin inhibits protein synthesis via ADP-ribosylation of EF-2.

143

Diphtheria
-if toxin gets into blood, what cells are preferentially damaged?
-what can this lead to?

Heart & neural cells.
-myocarditis, arrythmias,

144

Dx of diphtheria
-culture will show what?
-Is there a certain test that can help?

-Gram-positive rods with metachromatic (blue and red) granules.
-Black colonies on cystine-tellurite agar.
-Elek test for toxin.

145

Diphtheria
-prevention:

-Toxoid vaccine prevents diphtheria (against beta-subunit of toxin).

146

Diphtheria
-Tx:

1)Antitoxin
2)penicillin/macrolide
3)DPT vaccine.

147

Elek test
-what is it?

differentiates btwn toxic and
non-toxic strains.

148

How do you kill spores?

Autoclave: steaming at 121°C for 15 minutes.

149

Spore forming bugs:
-what class are they?

-gram (+) rods
-Bacillus, clostridium.
*+ coxiella burnetti

150

Autoclave: why is pressure necessary?

-pressure necessary or all water will evaporate and it will be dry. water will germinate them and make them easier to kill.

151

Tetanus
-how is Dx made?

Clinically made: good Hx & physical.

152

Botulinum toxin
-heat labile or heat stabile?

-Labile
*only real heat labile exotoxin = staph aureus enterotoxin.

153

Botulism
-is there a difference in mechanism of adults getting it vs. babies?

-adults get sick from ingesting pre-formed toxin, not from ingesting the actual bug/spore b/c the bug is outcompeted by our normal flora.
-babies lack the robust intestinal flora to keep c. botulinum at bay = so they can get sick from the spores.

154

botulinum toxin commonly found in:

Honey & canned goods.
*canned goods = anaerobic environment.
*clostridium = anaerobes.

155

Hyphae
-only seen in which form of a fungus?

Mold
-Yeast are unicellular fungi that do not grow as hyphae.

156

Diphtheria toxin
-mech:

ADP-ribosylation of EF-2: inhibits protein synthesis.

157

Polar granules that stain deeply w/aniline dyes:

C. diphtheria

158

EF-2: what does it do?

Necessary for tRNA to insert new AAs into growing protein chain during translation.

159

Pseudomonas
-shape:
-gram stain:
-lactose fermenting?
-oxidase +/-?

-gram (-) rod
-non-lactose fermenting.
-oxidase +

160

E. coli
-lactose fermenter?

yes

161

Salmonella + Shigella
-lactose fermenters?
-oxidase +/-?

-None lactose fermenters
-oxidase (-)

162

H2S prod
-what color on TSI or Hektoen agar?
-shigella or salmonella?

-Black on TSI or Hektoen agar
-salmonella

163

Where are peyers patches located?

ileum

164

Shigella
-was makes it cause so much disease? invasion or toxin?

Invasion
*nontoxigenic strains have also been found that cause significant disease.

165

Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral URI
-causative agent:

#1 = strep pneumo
#2 = staph aureus

166

Normal CD4 count for healthy adults?

400-1400 cells/uL

167

Do protozoans incite an eosinophilic response?

No, only invasive helminths.

168

bacterial vaginosis
-caused by:

gardnerella vaginalis

169

Gas gangrene
-Tx:

-IV penicillin G

170

Double zone of hemolysis: beta & alpha
-seen in which bug?

C. perfringens

171

Anaerobic hemolytic bug:

C. perfringens

172

C. perfringens
-besides hemolysis & gas gangrene, what can it cause?

Late onset food poisoning.
-we are NOT ingesting preformed toxin here like c. botulinum for example. Here, we ingest the spore, wait for it to germinate, produce toxins, and then we get the diarrhea.

173

C. dif
-name the 2 toxins & what they cause:
-how do they cause cell death?

-exotoxin A => watery diarrhea
-exotoxin B => pseudomembranous colitis
*these exotoxins both induce APOPTOSIS of epithelial
cells of colonic mucosa.

174

C. dif
-How to Dx?

-Diagnosed by detection of one or both toxins in stool.
-lots of pts are colonized w/c. dif but not all of those are strains that produce the toxin. So you check for the toxin, not the bug.

175

What is unique about bacillus anthracis capsule?
-whats it made of?

The only bacterium with a polypeptide capsule.
-contains d-glutamate.

176

Bacillus anthracis
-what are the 2 toxins?
-can they cause pathology on their own?

-lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF).
-both toxins must be present to cause symptoms.

177

Bacillus anthracis
-edema factor: mechanism?

-acts as adenylate cyclase, inc. cAMP intracellularly.

178

Bacillus anthracis
-lethal factor: mechanism?

-exotoxin that acts as a protease and cleaves MAP KINASE.
-Map kinase = controls cell growth.
-So LF responsible for tissue necrosis. This causes tissue necrosis thats seen in the black eschar.

179

Bacillus anthracis
-Tx:

fluoroquinolones or doxycycline

180

Cutaneous anthrax
-black eschar: is it painful?

No - its painless.

181

Pulmonary anthrax
-what will CXR show?

Widened mediastinum on CXR in the 2nd phase.

182

Bacillus cereus
-whats the pre-formed toxin called that causes the N/V?

Cereulide

183

Bacillus cereus
-emetic type:
-diarrheal type:

-Emetic type = N/V w/in 1–5 hr.
-Diarrheal type = watery, nonbloody diarrhea and GI pain within 8–18 hr.

184

Actinomyces vs. Nocardia
-gram + or -?

gram (+)

185

-Where is actinomyces found?
-Where is nocardia found?

-actinomyces = normal flora of mouth.
-nocardia = soil.

186

Nocardia
-what does it cause in immunocompromised?

-Pulmonary infections in immunocompromised.

187

Nocardia
-what does it cause in immunocompetant?

-Cutaneous infections after trauma in immunocompetent.

188

PPD (+) if:

-current infection, past exposure, or BCG vaccinated.

189

PPD (-) if:

-no infection or anergic (steroids, malnutrition, immunocompromise) and in sarcoidosis.

190

What the most specific TB test?
-why is it more specific?

Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) is a more specific test; has fewer false positives from BCG vaccination.

191

TB
-which virulence factor allows it intracellular bacterial prolif? AKA which ones allow it to survive the phagolysosome?

-sulfatide (surface glycolipids) inhibit phagolysosomal fusion.

192

reactivation TB
-seen in which part of lung?

apex
-b/c oxygen tension is highest at apex of lung due to dec. pulm circulation there, and TB = ob. aerobe

193

TB
-is it intracellular? if so, which cells does it invade?

yes. macros.

194

M. avium–intracellulare
-prophylaxis:

azithromycin

195

M. avium–intracellulare
-grows best in what condition?

grows best at 41 C.

196

Which agar grows TB best?

Löwenstein-Jensen agar

197

Cord factor
-what bug is it in?
-what does it do?

-Virulent strains of TB
-inhibits macrophage maturation and induces release of
TNF-α.

198

TB
-what is its main virulence factor?

Cord factor.

199

Why would cord factor want to induce release of TNF-alpha?

the cord factor induces the macro to release TNF-alpha which is pro-inflammatory. Why would the bug want to inc. inflammation/macrophage activation? Isn't that bad for the bug? No, because although it wont be able to spread, the bug knows that we will form a granuloma around it, which it can survive and lay dormant in.

200

Mycobacterium leprae
-which tissues does it invade?
-why?

Likes cool temperatures (infects skin and superficial nerves—“glove and stocking” loss of sensation).

201

Mycobacterium leprae
-can it be grown in vitro?

Can NOT be grown in vitro.

202

Mycobacterium leprae
-whats its reservoir in the U.S.?

Reservoir in United States: armadillos.

203

Leprosy
-aka?

Hansen disease

204

Lepromatous leprosy:
-better or worse than tuberculoid?
-whats the primary immune defense?

-worse
-characterized by low cell-mediated immunity with a humoral Th2 response.

205

Tuberculoid leprosy
-better or worse than lepromatous?
-whats the primary immune defense?

-better
-characterized by high cell-mediated immunity with a largely Th1-type immune response.

206

Tuberculoid leprosy
-Sxs:

-limited to a few hypoesthetic, hairless skin plaques.

207

Lepromatous leprosy:
-Sxs:

-presents diffusely over the skin, with leonine (lion-like) facies, and is communicable.

208

Lepromatous leprosy:
-Tx:

Dapsone, rifampin, and clofazimine for 2–5 years for lepromatous form.

209

Tuberculoid leprosy

Dapsone and rifampin for 6 months for tuberculoid form.

210

clofazimine
-what is it?

Used to treat lepromatous leprosy.

211

Tuberculoid v Lepromatous
-Will their biopsies differ?

-If you biopsy Tuberculoid lesions = small amnts of bacteria, b/c its contained.
-If you biopsy Lepromatous lesions = lots of bacteria present

212

Lepromatous
-fertility issues?

-Internal testicular damage => infertility.

213

Leposy
-most commonly involved nerves?

The most frequently enlarged nerves are those closest to the skin-the greater auricular, the ulnar (above the elbow), the posterior tibial, and the peroneal (over the fibula head).