3/10 heme/onc Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3/10 heme/onc Deck (130)
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1

RBC membrane has what transporter?

Membrane contains chloride- HCO3- antiporter, which allows RBCs to export HCO3- and transport CO2 from the periphery to the lungs for elimination.

2

Anisocytosis:

varying sizes of RBCs

3

Poikilocytosis:

varying shapes

4

platelet
-dense granules:
-alpha granules:

-dense granules = ADP, calcium
-a granules = vWF, fibrinogen

5

WBC differential from highest to lowest
-mnemonic:

Neutrophils Like Making Everything Better.
Neutrophils (54–62%)
Lymphocytes (25–33%)
Monocytes (3–7%)
Eosinophils (1–3%)
Basophils (0–0.75%)

6

Neutrophils
-granules contain what?

-ALP, collagenase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin.
-azurophilic granules (lysosomes) contain proteinases, acid phosphatase, myeloperoxidase, and β-glucuronidase.

7

Band cells
-what are they?

immature neutros

8

Cell surface marker for macrophage?

CD14

9

Eosinophil
-phagocytic?
-role in type 1 HSR?

-Highly phagocytic for antigen-antibody complexes.
-Produces histaminase and arylsulfatase (helps limit reaction following mast cell degranulation).

10

Causes of eosinophilia =
-mnemonic?

NAACP:
Neoplasia
Asthma
Allergic processes
Connective tissue diseases
Parasites (invasive)

11

Isolated basophilia found in:

CML.

12

Mast cell degranulation releases:

Histamine, heparin, and eosinophil chemotactic factors.

13

Universal donor of plasma?
-which blood type

AB

14

Universal recipient of plasma?
-which blood type?

O

15

-anti-A and anti-B antibodies =
-anti-Rh=

-what type of Ab and does it cross the placenta?

-IgM (do not cross placenta)
-IgG (cross placenta)

16

Erythryoblastosis fetalis
-Tx:

Treatment: Rho(D) IgG for mother during every pregnancy to prevent initial sensitization of Rh- mother to Rh antigen.

17

In basic terms, what is coagulation?

Coagulation = soluble fibrinogen converting to insoluble fibrin.
-property of plasma. dont need anything else.

18

Heparin sulfate
-what hooks onto it?

-antithrombin 3

19

Antithrombin inhibits activated forms of factors:

II, VII, IX, X, XI, XII.
-1972 + 11 & 12

20

thrombomodulin
-binds what? which activates what?

-thrombin
-thrombin activates protein C which inhibits factors 5 & 8.

21

Effects of thrombin on factor 5 & 8?

-coag. starts slow, but once thrombin made, thrombin goes back and activates factors 8 and 5 which accelerate the pathway. This speeds up coag.

-Protein C and S inactivate factor 8a and 5a. They're the
"brakes" to coag pathway.

22

Endothelial cell: Weiber-palody body contains:

-vWF in the endothelial cell. These contain vWF & ps-electin.

23

Ticlopidine and clopidogrel:

-inhibit ADP-induced expression of GpIIb/IIIa.
-irreversibly bind ADP receptor.

24

Ristocetin:

-Activates vWF to bind to GpIb.
-Useful for diagnosis: normal platelet aggregation response is not seen in von Willebrand disease.

25

Acanthocyte (spur cell)
-associated w/

-Liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia (states of cholesterol dysregulation).

26

Basophilic stippling
-mnemonic

BASically, ACiD alcohol is LeThal.
-Anemia of Chronic Disease
-alcohol abuse
-Lead poisoning
-Thalassemias.

27

Bite cell
-which disease?

G6PD deficiency.

28

Elliptocyte
-which disease?

Hereditary elliptocytosis.

29

Macro-ovalocyte
-which disease?

-Megaloblastic anemia (also hypersegmented PMNs)
-marrow failure.

30

Mechanical trauma (ie. prosthetic valve) vs. trauma from microthrombi:

Look at the platelet count! if its normal, then its a prosthetic, if platelet count is down then its a microthrmbi.