Flashcards in 2/23 Deck (95)
Dyspnea on exertion
Failure or CO to inc. during exercise.
-dyspnea = SOB
Culture negative causes of endocarditis:
2 most common culture neg. causes of endocarditis.
Tricuspid valve endocarditis:
-which bugs besides S. aureus?
Pseudomonas, and Candida.
*S. aureus most common
-consequence of what?
-Group A strep pharyngitis!
Whats an Aschoff body?
-granuloma found in rheumatic fever.
What are Anitschkow cells?
-enlarged macrophages with ovoid, wavy, rod-like
-found in rheumatic fever.
Fusion of aortic/mitral commissures.
-found in which disease?
-rheumatic heart diseaes (late sequela of rheumatic fever).
Rheumatic fever Sxs:
Valvular damage (vegetation and fibrosis)
Red-hot joints (migratory polyarthritis)
St. Vitus’ dance (Sydenham chorea)
rheumatic fever: what are the early deaths due to?
SLE pericarditis: whats the fluid like?
serous, clear/yellow, protein rich w/few inflammatory cells.
Post MI pericarditis: whats the fluid like?
fibrinous, low protein count.
Acute pericarditis: more or less pain when leaning forward? During inspiration?
-less pain leaning forward
-more pain on inspiration
Causes of fibrinous pericarditis:
-uremia (etiology is poorly understood)
*Presents with loud friction rub.
Causes of serous pericarditis:
-viral pericarditis (often resolves spontaneously)
-noninfectious inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, SLE).
Causes of Suppurative/purulent pericarditis:
-bacterial infections (e.g., Pneumococcus, Streptococcus).
*Rare now with antibiotics.
ECG of cardiac tamponade?
-electrical alternans (due to “swinging” movement of heart in large effusion - beat to beat alterations of QRS height).
Pulses paradoxus seen in which diseases?
-obstructive sleep apnea
What causes pulsus paradoxus?
-when you breath in the right ventricle filled more so expands into pericardial space & also into LV space. LV usually displaces but now it can't due to constriction of cardiac tamponade.
-so LV is constricted, fills less. Less volume means less pressure (frank starling) so you get a drop in systolic BP on inspiration.
Tree bark appearance of syphillitic aorta due to what?
-irregular wrinkling of the tunica intima of the aorta.
-most common primary cardiac tumor in who?
-associated w/what disease?
-where does it usually arise?
-Polypoid capillary hemangioma that can ulcerate and bleed.
-Associated with trauma and pregnancy.
-Benign, painful, red-blue tumor under fingernails.
-Arises from modified smooth muscle cells of glomus body.
*glomus body = modified smooth muscle cells invovled in temp. regulation.
Angiosarcoma: associated w/what risk factors?
-sun exposed areas
-chronic lymphedema (skin)
Will kaposi sarcoma blanch?
Does a negative biopsy exclude Temporal arteritis?
-lesions are segmental.
Two most common signs of Temporal arteritis?
-what can it lead to?
-Unilateral headache, jaw claudication
-irreversible blindness due to ophthalmic art. occlusion.
-associated w/what disorder?
Takayasu arteritis Sxs:
-“Pulseless disease” (weak upper extremity pulses)