3/14 heme/onc Flashcards Preview

Final FA review > 3/14 heme/onc > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3/14 heme/onc Deck (120)
Loading flashcards...
1

Myelodysplastic syndromes
-can progress to what cancer?

AML

2

Myelodysplastic syndromes
-cause?

-Caused by de novo mutations or environmental exposure (e.g., radiation, benzene, chemotherapy)

3

Myelodysplastic syndromes
-whats marrow look like?

Hypercellular bone marrow, but the cells are not
formed properly and dont get released into blood,
so pts have cytopenias.

4

Pseudo–Pelger-Huet anomaly
-seen in what disease?
-what is it?

Bilobed neutrophils seen in myelodysplastic syndromes following chemotherapy.

5

TDT
-what is it?
-which cells/disease is it found it?

-marker for lymphoblasts, so seen in ALL.
-TDT = DNA pol. Only present in lymphoblast nucleus, no other cells. Not in mature lymphoblasts or any other cell.
*TDT found in the nucleus.

6

Whats the marker for myeloblasts (AML)?

-myeloperoxidase => Auer rods
-AML only.

7

Age: <15
-which leukemia(s)?

ALL

8

Age: >60
-which leukemia(s)?

CLL

9

Age: 15-60
-which leukemia(s)?

AML

10

Age: 40-59
-which leukemia(s)?

CML

11

Mediastinal mass
-which leukemia?
-whats the mass?
-mnemonic?

-T-cell ALL
-leukemic infiltration of the thymus
*T cell, T-hymus

12

CD10+
-T or B cell marker?

pre-B cell marker.

13

Down Syndrome
-associated w/which leukemias?

ALL
AML

14

ALL
-most often spreads to where?
-is it responsive to chemo?

-CNS and testes.
-Yes it is.

15

Does normal chemo help CNS & testes?

-Normal chemo doesn't pass BBB or B-testicle-barrier. So give those two their own chemo.

16

Which ALL translocation has a better prognosis?

-t(12;21) = better prognosis

17

CLL
-neoplasm of which cell? T or B cells?
-markers?

-B cells
-CD20+, CD5+

*CD5 surprisingly.

18

smudge cells
-which leukemia?

CLL

19

Small lymphocytic lymphoma
-which leukemia?

CLL
-small = chronic, b/c more mitoses have gone by (compared to blast stage) so cell has gotten smaller.

20

Most pts w/CLL die how?

-infection.
-these neoplastic naive B cells do NOT become plasma cells = hypogammaglobinemia = will die of infection.
*the ones that do make Ig are messed up and will target your own RBCs and cause autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

21

Why would you see spherocytes in CLL?

b/c you can get autoimmune hemolytic anemia in CLL.

22

Richter syndrome

CLL transforming into diffuse large B cell lymphoma = Richter syndrome.

23

Hairy cell leukemia
-neoplasm of which cells?
-marker?

-B-Cells (its a variant of CLL)
-TRAP (+)

24

Hairy cell leukemia
-whats it do to bone marrow?

-marrow fibrosis => dry tap.

25

Hairy cell leukemia
-seen in which pt pop?
-Tx:

-elderly
-cladribine an adenosine analog inhibits adenosine deaminase (like in SCID).

26

AML
-risk factors

-prior exposure to alkylating chemotherapy
-radiation
-myeloproliferative disorders
-down syndrome.

27

M3 AML
-translocation?
-Tx?
-how does it cause DIC?

-t(15;17)
-reitnoic acid
-DIC is a common presentation in M3 AML and can be induced by chemotherapy due to release of Auer rods.
*since auer rods seen mostly in M3.

28

Which leukemia classically affects gums?

-acute monocytic leukemia.
-obviously a sect of AML

29

CML
-whats the main cell?
-Tx:

-myeloprolif. disorder, main cell = neutrophil.
-imatinib (gleevec): tyrosine kinase inhibitor

30

t(9;22), bcr-abl
-which leukemia?

CML