3/29 psych Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3/29 psych Deck (147):
1

Relationship btwn p-value & alpha

-so .05 is the alpha & p is judged against it!
-so p = alpha of the experiment, and .05 is the
set alpha we want to reach!

2

alpha:
-rate of which type of error?
-false pos? false neg?

type 1 error
-false positive

3

P =
-probability of ___

probability of making a type 1 error
-alpha
-false positive

4

If sensitivity of FOB screen is 66%.
-tell me the sentence of what that means.

-"If the pt has colon cancer, their probability of having a positive FOB screen is 66%".

5

Factitious disorder
-conscious or unconscious decision?
-aka?

-conscious
-munchausen or munchausen by proxy

6

Management of somatic symptom disorder:

-Schedule regular visits w/same provider. Outpatient visits. Limit unneccessary workups/referrals to specialists.
-in contrast to having symptom-driven visits.

7

Somatoform disorders
-intentional or unintentional?
-name the different disorders:

-unintentional.
-Somatic Sx disorder
-Conversion disorder
-Illness anxiety disorder (hypochondriasis)

8

Personality disorder
-are people usually aware of their disorder?
-what are the 3 clusters? mnemonic?

Nope
-A, B, and C
-Weird, Wild, and Worried based on symptoms.

9

Cluster A
-mnemonic:
-which ones are in cluster A?

-Weird (weird, wild, & worried).
-paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal.

10

Paranoid personality disorder
-which cluster?
-whats their major ego defense mechanism?

-Cluster A
-projection = immature defense.

11

Schizotypal
-which cluster
-menmonic?

-Cluster A
-schizoTypal = magical Thinking.
-they're weirdos

12

Cluster B
-mnemonic:
-which ones are in cluster B?

-Wild (weird, wild & worried).
-Antisocial
-Borderline
-Histrionic
-Narcissistic

13

Borderline
-which cluster?
-describe some features:
-whats their major defense mechanism?

-cluster B
-violent swings in affect, self-mutilation for attention, impulsive, suicidal ideation. Usually a woman.
-Splitting = immature defense.

14

Histrionic
-which cluster?
-describe some features:
-often accompanied w/which disorders?

-cluster B
-Excessive emotionality and excitability, attention seeking, sexually provocative, overly concerned with appearance.
-Somatoform disorder.

15

Cluster C
-mnemonic:
-which ones are in cluster C?

-Worried (weird, wild & worried).
-avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, dependent.

16

Avoidant
-which cluster?
-different vs schizoid?
-describe:

-cluster C
-avoidant people DESIRE relationships, schizoid dont.
-Hypersensitive to rejection, socially inhibited, timid, feelings of inadequacy.

17

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
-which cluster?
-ego-syntonic or ego-dystronic?

-ego-syntonic: behavior consistent with one’s own beliefs and attitudes (vs. OCD).

18

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
-vs. OCD

Personality disorder:
-has no obsessions or compulsions. Not the same as
OCD anxiety disorder.
-these are perfectionists.
-they love lists, crave rules, live life by rulebook
and insist everyone else does as well.

19

Schizophrenic psychotic symptoms + bipolar or depressive mood disorder =

= Schizoaffective

20

Lanugo
-what is it?
-what disease is it associated with?

-fine body hair.
-anorexia nervosa.

21

Gender dysphoria
-what is it?

-Strong, persistent cross-gender identification.
-Affected individuals are often referred to as transgender.

22

Transsexualism
-define:

Desire to live as the opposite sex, often through surgery or hormone treatment.

23

Transvestism

-Paraphilia (sexual perversion), NOT gender dysphoria.
-Wearing clothes (e.g., vest) of the opposite sex
(cross-dressing).

24

Sleep terrors
-occur during which phase of sleep?

slow-wave sleep
*no memory of arousal.

25

Sleep terrors
-memory of the arousal?

No
-happens in non-REM sleep (slow wave sleep) so there is no memory of it.
-unlike nightmares which happen during REM sleep and you remember it.

26

Narcolepsy
-REM latency:

shortened.
-typically enter REM sleep almost immediately.

27

Narcolepsy
-cause

Caused by dec. orexin production in lateral hypoT.
-hypocretin-1 = orexin A
-hypocretin-2 = orexin B

28

Narcolepsy
-Tx:

-daytime stimulants = amphetamines, modafinil.
-nighttime sodium oxybate (GHB).

29

sodium oxybate
-aka?
-what does it treat?

aka GHB
-narcolepsy

30

Yawning, sweating, rhinorrhea
-withdrawal from what?

opioids

31

Which drugs decrease gag reflex?

opioids

32

Opioid withdrawal
-Tx:

-long-term support, methadone, buprenorphine.

33

Buprenorphine
-what is it?

partial opioid agonist
-used for opioid withdrawal.

34

Barbiturates
-withdrawal Sxs:

Delirium, life-threatening cardiovascular collapse.

35

Cocaine intox
-Tx:

Benzos

36

varenicline
-mech:
-used for:

varenicline = partial agonist at nicotinic receptor.
-Tx of nicotine withdrawal
-trade name = chantix
-may cause depression.

37

Which drug of abuse can activate NMJ which gives them their super-human strength. May lead to rhabdo & acute tubularnecrosis.

PCP (phencyclidine).

38

How long is weed detectable in urine after you stop smoking?

4-10 days

39

Weed
-how does it cause tachy?
-how does it cause red eye?

Can cause significant tachycardia secondary to
vasodilation & hypotension.
-vasodilation also => red eye.

40

Addiction to what drug inc. risk of hemorrhoids?

Heroin

41

Naltrexone
-what is it?
-mech?

-Long-acting opioid antagonist used for relapse prevention once detoxified.

42

Naloxone
-mech:

pure opioid antagonist

43

Bulimia
-pharm Tx:

SSRIs

44

phentermine
-what is it?

CNS stimulant
-appetite suppressor.
-using for more than 3 months has been linked w/development of secondary pulmonary HTN.

45

CNS stimulants: OD
-Tx:

acidify urine
-ammonium chloride

46

fenfluramine
-what is it?

CNS stimulant
-appetite suppressor.
-using for more than 3 months has been linked w/development of secondary pulmonary HTN.

47

How do CNS stimulants treat ADHD? Seems counter productive.

-all about the chronic use and chronic overload of amphetamines at the synpatic cleft.
-whole idea = downregulation & desensitization of the receptors.
-dont suddenly stop, you can get depressed and suicidal.

48

enzyme sensitization:
-what parameter changes?

dec. Km

49

enzyme up-reg:
-what parameter changes?

inc. Vmax

50

Antipsychotics: typical
-suffix?
-outlier?

-haloperidol + “-azines”.

51

Antipsychotics: typical
-mechanism?

-D2 blocker which inc. cAMP.
*D2 = Gi, so blocking it will inc. cAMP.

52

Antipsychotics
-besides psychosis & mania - what does it treat?

Tourette syndrome

53

Antipsychotics
-solubility?

-Highly lipid soluble and stored in body fat; thus,
very slow to be removed from body.

54

Antipsychotics: Extrapyramidal system side effects
-Tx:

-benztropine or diphenhydramine.
*you have low dopamine which means high ACh - so treat by inc. ACh.
-you do NOT want to treat by inc. dopamine, bc psychotic pts have too high a dopamine and thats why you're using anti-dopamine drugs like antipsychotics in the first place!

55

Antipsychotics
-what are the endocrine side effects?

Blocking dopamine receptors = blocking dopamine's inhibition on PRL secretion.
-hyperprolacinemia => agalactorrhea, amenorrhea (PRL inhibits GnRH).

56

Antipsychotics: side effects
-Besides D2 - what other receptors do these block?

-muscarinic, alpha-1, histamine.

57

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
-due to what most commonly by what drug?
-Sxs:
-Tx:

-due to D2 blockade via haloperidol.
-rigidity, myoglobinuria, autonomic instability, hyperpyrexia.
-dantrolene, D2 agonists (e.g., bromocriptine)
*so in this case you can give D2 agonists - but you dont give D2 agonists for the extra-pyramidal side effects.

58

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
-what do you see here that you dont see in serotonin syndrome?

-NMS = rigidity
-SS = myoclonus

59

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
-why do you get hyperpyrexia?

Dopamine also important in temp regulation. So blocking it may produce malignant hyperthermia, = neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

60

Tardive dyskinesia
-which drugs can cause it?
-what is it?

-anti-psychotics
-stereotypic oral-facial movements as a result of long-term antipsychotic use. Potentially irreversible.
-involuntary perioral movement ie. biting, chewing, grimacing, tongue protrustions.-Doesn't have to be constant, can come and go. Usually arived after 4 mo of treatment.

61

Antipsychotics: high potency
-name them
-mnemonic

-Trifluoperazine, Fluphenazine, Haloperidol
-Try to Fly High.

62

Antipsychotics: high potency
-neuro (EPS) side effects or non-neuro?
-why?

-primarily neuro side effects aka EPS, due to potent D2 antagonism.
-they're very potent so you dont have to give a lot which means the extra-neuro side effects will be minimal.
-if you gave a much higher dose than was required im sure you'd get some extra-neuro side effects as well.

63

Antipsychotics: low potency
-neuro (EPS) side effects or non-neuro?
-why?

Low potency
-so takes a lot to have neuro effects.
-so it makes sense that there aren't that make neuro side effects but you'll have a lot of non-neuro side effects bc you have to give a lot of this drug bc its low potency.

64

Antipsychotics: low potency
-name them
-mnemonic

Chlorpromazine, Thioridazine
-Cheating Thieves are low.

65

Chlorpromazine
-what is it? potency?
-unique side effect?

-Low potency neuroleptic
-corneal deposits

66

Thioridazine
-what is it? potency?
-unique side effect?

-Low potency neuroleptic
-reTinal deposits

67

Haloperidol
-what is it? potency?
-common side effects?

high potency neuroleptic
-NMS, tardive dyskinesia

68

Anti-psychotics
Evolution of EPS side effects

-4 hr acute dystonia
-4 day akathisia (restlessness)
-4 wk bradykinesia (parkinsonism)
-4 mo tardive dyskinesia

69

Blepharospasm
-define:
-seen in what?

-second most common focal dystonia. Forced closure of the eyelids.
-Initial Sx = uncontrollable blinking.
-seen as EPS of antipsychotics: w/in 4 hours.

70

akathisia
-what is it?
-how long into antipsychotic med use does it occur?

-restlessness
-4 days in.

71

NMS
-Sxs:
-mnemonic?

NMS, think FEVER:
Fever
Encephalopathy
Vitals unstable
Enzymes 
Rigidity of muscles

72

atypical antipsychotic
-difference vs typical?

-blocks dopamine and 5HT2 receptors.
*5HT2 receptor: like alpha-2, its pre synaptic and
is neg. feedback on serotonin release. So blocking
5HT2 receptor will inc. serotonin release.

73

atypical antipsychotics
-name them:
-mnemonic:

-Olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, risperidone,
aripiprazole, ziprasidone.
-It’s atypical for old closets to quietly risper from
A to Z.

74

5HT2 receptor
-function:
-blocking it will do what?

-5HT2 receptor: like alpha-2, its pre synaptic and
is neg. feedback on serotonin release.
-Blocking it will inc. serotonin release.

75

Do they treat positive or negative Sxs: Schizo
-typical neuroleptics:
-atypical neuroleptics:

-typical = treats positive Sxs.
-atypicals = both pos & neg Sxs.

76

atypical antipsychotics
-side effects vs typical?

Fewer extrapyramidal and anticholinergic side effects.
-

77

Olanzapine/clozapine
-what are they?
-unique side effects?

-atypical antipsychotics
-weight gain.

78

Clozapine
-what is it?
-unique side effects?

-atypical antipsychotics
-agranulocytosis
*req. weekly WBC monitoring.

*Must watch clozapine clozely!

79

Which atypical antipsychotic requires weekly WBC monitoring?
-mnemonic?

Clozapine

*Must watch clozapine clozely!

80

Risperidone
-what is it?
-unique side effects?

-atypical antipsychotics
-may inc. PRL

81

Man develops breasts after taking an antipsychotic
-which one is he on?
-mechanism?

Risperidone
-inc. PRL => gynecomastia.

82

Ziprasidone
-what is it?
-unique side effects?

-atypical antipsychotics
-may prolong the QT interval.

83

Lithium
-mech:
-use:

-dec PIP2, which means dec. Gq pathway.
-also lowers cAMP.

84

Lithium
-use:

Bipolar disorder, SIADH
*causes nephrogenic DI.

85

Lithium
-notable side effects:

-hypothyroidism
-polyuria (ADH antagonist causing nephrogenic DI)
-Teratogen (Ebstein anomaly).
-edema
-heart block
-tremor

86

Lithium
-how is it excreted?

Almost exclusively through the kidneys.
-most is reabsorbed at the PCT following Na+ reabsorption.

87

How does lithium cause tremor?

Lithium is VERY similar to Na! This can depolarize
cells and produce tremors.

88

How does lithium cause hypothyroidism?

-TSH binds to Gs coupled receptors on thyroid but
lithium dec. cAMP so prevents action of TSH.
-Lithium also = peripheral deiodinase inhibitor.
-hypothyroidism can cause depression.

89

How does lithium cause depression?

-TSH binds to Gs coupled receptors on thyroid but
lithium dec. cAMP so prevents action of TSH.
-Lithium also = peripheral deiodinase inhibitor.
-hypothyroidism can cause depression.

90

How does lithium cause nephrogenic DI?

-ADH receptors = Gs coupled, so now ADH wont work.
*Lithium lowers cAMP.

91

Chronic loops/thiazides
-action on lithium clearance?

-chronic loops & chronic thiazides will dec. lithium clearance thru aldo mechanism.
-Lithium is like Na. Remember, thiazides and loops dec. Na resorption proximally, but that will inc. Na resorption via aldo effect. So instead use potassium sparing diuretics.

92

Hyponatremia effect on lithium?
-which diuretic = most likely to cause hyponatremia?

Lithium will have inc. toxicity
-you're taking away Na which is its competitor.
-thiazides have greatest potential out of diuretics to cause hyponatremia.

93

SSRIs
-name them
-mnemonic:

-Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram
-Flashbacks paralyze senior citizens.

94

How long does it take for anti-depressants to have an effect?

It normally takes 4–8 weeks for antidepressants
to have an effect.

95

Which opioid has an SSRI metabolite?

Meperidine (opiate) = its metabolite, normeperidine, is an SSRI

96

SSRI
-side effects:

GI distress, sexual dysfunction (anorgasmia and dec. libido).

97

SSRIs
-what can occur in the first few weeks? and how do you prevent it?

-SSRIS: their initial activating affects can lead to increased agitation and anxiety during this period.
-thus, a temporary course of benzos is sometimes used during SSRI initiation if there is a significant increase in anxiety-related Sxs.

98

Serotonin syndrome
-key Sxs:

-hyperthermia
-myoclonus
-CV collapse
-flushing, diarrhea
-seizures
-hyperreflexia
-bruxism (teeth grinding)
*no muscle rigidity like NMS.

99

Serotonin syndrome
-Tx:

-cyproheptadine (5-HT2 receptor antagonist)
*its a 1st gen antihistamine w/serotonin blocking action as well.

100

cyproheptadine
-mech:
-whats it used for?

-5-HT2 receptor antagonist.
**its a 1st gen antihistamine w/serotonin blocking action as well.
-Serotonin syndrome treatment.

101

bruxism
-seen with drugs that inc. what?

serotonin

102

Which antidepressant has an off-label use as treating premature ejaculation?

SSRIs (anorgasmia is a side effect but here its used as a mechanism of action).

103

Can you switch from a MAO inhibitor to another anti-depressant right away?

NO
-The inhibition of MAO is irreversible. If a patient wishes to switch medications from a MAOI to an alternative medication such as an SSRI, they must wait at least two weeks in order to regenerate MAO to prevent a hypertensive crisis.

104

SNRIs
-name them
-mech:

-Venlafaxine, duloxetine.
-serotonin & NE reuptake inhibitor.

105

duloxetine
-what is it?
-common use:

-SNRI
-Diabetic peripheral neuropathy

106

Venlafaxine
-what is it?
-common use:

-SNRI
-generalized anxiety disorder

107

SNRIs
-same mechanism of action as what other drugs?

TCAs
-except no autonomic side effects!

108

SNRIs
-side effect

inc. BP
-some stimulant effects.

109

TCAs
-suffix?
-exception?

-iptyline or -ipramine
-doxepin and amoxapine

110

doxepin
-what is it?

TCA

111

amoxapine
-what is it?

TCA

112

TCA
-mech:
-what other receptors do they block (that cause side effects)?

Block reuptake of NE & serotonin.
*same as SNRI.

-also block: alpha-1, muscarinic

113

fibromyalgia
-which anti-depressant given?

TCA

114

OCD
-best TCA to use?

clomipramine

115

Which TCA = least sedating but has highest seizure rate?

Desipramine

116

TCA
-side effects
-mnemonic:

Tri-C’s:
-Convulsions, Coma, Cardiotoxicity (arrhythmias).
-Also respiratory depression, hyperpyrexia

117

Which TCA has least anti-cholinergic side effects.
-aka its best to use to avoid confusion/hallucinations in elderly.
-mnemonic:

nortriptyline
-Use nortriptyline so the old people wont "tryp".

118

Anti-cholinergic Sxs of TCAs & BPH.

Can worsen BPH urinary retention.

119

amoxapine
-whats its metabolite & what can it cause?

Its metabolite is a dopamine antagonist so can lead to too much prolactin & subsequent side effects of that.

120

TCAs
-how do they lead to arrythmias?

-cardiac fast Na channels blocked.
-phase 0 prolonged = QRS prolonged.
-this also have negative inotropic effects bc you have impaired excitation-contraction coupling w/diminished release of Ca from SR. Remember - the influx of Na & resultant depolarization is what causes the Ca channels to open. So this is being screwed up.

*combine this neg. inotropy w/alpha-1 blockade & you have refratory hypotension.

121

TCA
-how do they get refractory hypotension?

dec. inotropy + alpha-1 blockade.

122

MAO inhibitors
-name them
-mnemonic:

-Tranylcypromine, Phenelzine, Isocarboxazid, Selegiline
-MAO Takes Pride In Shanghai.

123

MAO inhibitors
-reversible or irreversible inhibitor of MAO?

irreversible

124

Amine NTs
-what are they?

NE, serotonin, dopamine.

125

MAO-A
-metabolizes what?

NE & serotonin.

126

MAO-B
-metabolizes what?

dopamine

127

Which opioids are C/I if using MAO inhibitors?

meperidine & dextromethorphan.

128

Hypertensive crisis vs serotonin syndrome

-build up too much NE => hypertensive crisis.
-build up too much serotonin => serotonin syndrome.

129

Tyramine
-causes release of what from the mobile pool?
-can cause what if eaten w/MAO inhibitors?

Causes release of catecholamines = NE, epi, dopamine.
-can lead to hypertensive crisis NOT serotonin syndrome bc it does not cause release of serotonin!

*catecholaminergic neurons are not the same as serotoninergic neurons.

130

Atypical depression:
-define:
-what do you treat this with?

-Mood reactivity = key feature
-leaden paralysis (arms/legs feel heavy).
-"reversed" vegetative Sxs (eat more/gain weight).
-rejection insensitivity.
-MAO inhibitors = first line.

131

Bupropion
-mech:
-use:

-inc. NE & dopamine. unknown mech.
-Atypical antidepressant, smoking cessation.

132

Bupropion
-side effects:

-reduces seizure threshold.
-stimulant.
-seizure in bulimic pts (or anorexia w/purging).
-NO sexual side effects.

133

Why do some people use bupropion vs SSRIs?

No sexual side effects w/bupropion.

134

SSRIs
-what causes the sexual dysfunction and why doesn't bupropion cause it?

-Muscarinic blockade = para block = no erection.
-alpha-1 blockade = sym block = no emission.

*bupropion doesn't have these autonomic side effects.

135

Mirtazapine
-mech:
-use:

-α2-antagonist => inc. release of NE & serotonin.
-potent 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.
-Atypical antidepressant

136

Mirtazapine
-side effects:

-weight gain
*desirable in anorexics/elderly.

137

Trazodone
-mech:
-use:

-Blocks 5-HT2 and α1-adrenergic receptors.
-Insomnia.

*high doses needed for anti-depressant effects.

138

Trazodone
-side effect
-mnemonic:

-priapism
*blocks alpha-1 so your vessels stay dilated and your penis stays engorged.

-Called trazobone due to male-specific side effects.

139

Mood disorder w/psychotic features vs. schizoaffective
-how to differentiate?

In mood disorders, the psychotic Sxs occur only during manic or depressive episodes.
-to Dx schizoaffective disorder, there have to be at least 2 weeks of psychosis w/o any mood disorder.
*but mood mood Sxs do have to be present for the majority of the illness in schizoaffective.

140

Sertraline
-what is it?

SSRI
-flashbacks paralyze senior citizens.

141

What is a feared side effect of TCA overdose?

cardiac arrythmia

142

2nd gen H1 blockers
-suffix?
-exception:

-adine
-cetirizine

143

fexofenadine
-what is it?

2nd gen H1 blocker

144

TCA OD
-how does it lead to arrythmia?

Block fast Na channel conductance.
-they'll have a low BP bc inotropy is reduced as a result.

145

Serotonin Sx:
-usually caused by:

-MAO inhib + SSRI
-way too much SSRI

146

Which drugs can lead to lithium toxicity?

NSAIDs, thiazides, ACE inhibitors.

147

Restless leg syndrome
-Tx:

dopamine agonist