4/6&7 overall review Flashcards Preview

Final FA review > 4/6&7 overall review > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4/6&7 overall review Deck (127):
1

What is underlying pathophys of ARDS?
-what will CXR look like?

Damage to endothelial cells lining the pulm caps.
-results in leakage of fluids into alveoli.
-CXR will show "white out" of the lungs.

2

Alveolar wall destruction
-which disease?

emphysema

3

aneurysmal dilations
-usually have absent what?

internal elastic lamina.

4

Cardiac tissue conduction velocity
-order?
-mnemonic:

Park At Ventura Ave.
-purkinje system = fastest
-atrial muscle
-ventricular muscle
-AV node = slowest

5

Which chamber are SA and AV node located?

RA

6

Conduction speed of atrial muscle vs ventricular muscle.
-which one faster?

atrial muscle faster than ventricular muscle.

7

Paget disease of bone
-most often associated w/which bone tumor?

osteosarcoma.

8

Age distribution in osteosarcoma?

bimodal.

9

radiological findings in osteosarcoma:

-areas of mixed lysis & sclerosis = radioopaque & radiolucent areas.
-periosteal elevation.
-reactive new bone formation.
-lifting of cortex.

10

Osteophytes
-RA or osteoarthritis?

osteoarthritis

11

Trabecular bone
-aka?
-damaged preferentially in which disease?

-spongy, cancellous.
-osteoporosis.

12

globus hystericus
-what is it?

"lump in your throat".

13

karyorrhexis
-what is it?

nuclear fragmentation - part of apoptosis.
-get 180 bp fragments.

14

Blurred vision: think what mechanism?

-think a ciliary muscle/lens issue, NOT a pupillary size issue!

15

Pleiotropy

Impact a single gene has on multiple phenotypes.

16

tumor cell w/round nuclei and prominent lipid vacuoles.

Burkitt lymphoma

17

t(12;21): which disease?

ALL
-better prognosis.

18

IL-1 primarily released by which cell?

macros

19

TNF-alpha primarily released by which cell?

macros

20

GM-CSF
-stim prod of which cells?

granulocytes + monocytes

21

What can cause dissociation of cadherins?

Removing Ca from extracellular fluid. Leads to loss of cell-to-cell adhesion.
-Cadherin intercellular interactions are Ca dependent.

22

In post & ant dislocations of knee (so ACL/PCL injuries), which nerve or vessel is most likely to be injured?

Popliteal artery
*tibial n. in similar location but not as susceptible to this type of injury like pop. artery is.
*popliteal vein same location but superficial to artery. Also not as likely to be injured in this kind of injury.

23

Psych: reflection is most similar to what other technique?

summarization

24

Psych: facilitation
-what is it?

Encouraging the pt to talk more: "tell me how your drinking increased".

25

What changes does cocaine cause to your nose area?

-atrophic nasal mucosa.
-chronic nasal discharge.
-thinning of nasal septum.
-oropharyngeal ulcers.

26

Hay fever
-what is it?

Seasonal form of allergic rhinitis.
-provoked by pollen from plants.

27

Which cell = primary player in asthma?

mast cell.

28

Long thoracic nerve
-which nerve roots?

C5-C7

29

Is there bicarb in sweat?

not really.

30

PTSD
-by definition how long has it been going on?
-what do you call it if it hasn't been going on that long?

PTSD > 1 month.
< 1 month (but > 3 days) = acute stress disorder.

31

Schizo Sxs < 1 mo: whats it called?

brief psychotic episode

32

Number needed to treat: equation?

1/ARR
*ARR = absolute risk reduction.
-so if 40% survived w/Tx, and 20% survived w/o Tx. Then ARR = 40-20 = 20%.
*1/ARR = 1/.2 = 5.

33

Viral cause of kluber bucy?
-explain:

HSV-1 encephalitis causes damage to temporal lobe.
-amygdala is in temporal lobe.
-damage to amydala => kluver bucy.

34

Acute intermittent porphyria
-what builds up?
-inheritance pattern?

-porphobilinogen.
-auto-dom.

35

Porphyria cutanea tarda
-what builds up?

uroporphyrinogen 3.

36

trinucleotide repeat diseases
-all cause Sxs in which system?

CNS

37

Is penetrance an all or nothing thing?

ya

38

genetic heterogeneity
-define:

mutations at diff genes cause same phenotype.

39

In adults, S3 usually heard in setting of what heart problem?

Heart failure - either systolic or diastolic.

40

Transudate vs Exudate:
-pleural fluid LDH/serum LDH: > .6

Exudate.
*transudates dont have LDH in them.

41

Osmotic fragility test: (+)
-which disease?

Hereditary spherocytosis
*pathognomonic.

42

Target cells:
-seen in which diseases?
-mnemonic:

HALT said the hunger to his target:
-HbC disease
-Asplenia
-Liver disease
-Thalassemia

43

Diabetic neuropathy of DM:
-symmetrical/bilateral?

yes, symmetrical.

44

There will be a question where you have to differentiate LEMS vs MG:
-Associated w/which organ?
-Which one is more common?
-Which one more commonly presents w/eye weakness?
-Which one gets better w/more activity?

-MG = thymoma. LEMS = small cell lung cancer.
-MG = much more common.
-MG = more likely to get diplopia.
-LEMS = better w/increased use.

45

RB gene
-which chrom?
-can lead to which tumors?

-13
-retinoblastomas, osteosarcomas.

46

Neisseria
-gram +/-?

gram (-)

47

DiGeorge: pouch or arch?
-mnemonic?

Pouch.
-George Foreman "punches".

48

serum sodium levels in DKA?

hyponatremia
-Dilutional hyponatremia. Water shifted from intra to extracellular compartments due to the hyperosmolarity.

49

spina bifida cystica
-aka?

myelomeningocele.

50

androgen insensitivity
-why do they develop breasts?

free testosterone aromatized to estrogen.
-develop breasts.
*there is inc. LH & testosterone (& therefore Estrogen) bc LH has no neg. feedback bc test. receptors in hypoT insensitive as well.

51

Intraventricular hemorrhage:
-happens in which pt population?

-Low birth weight babies (< 32 weeks).

*most often occurs in the germinal matrix.

52

How are transmembrane proteins anchored inside the cytoplasm?

palmitoylation.

53

Nitroglycerin:
-effect on HR?

reflex tachy.
-so give it w/a beta blocker.

54

pseudohypoparathyroidism
-inheritance pattern?
-Sxs:

-auto-dom.
-short stature, hypocalcemia, short 4th & 5th digit, PTH resistance.

55

Allelic heterogeneity
-define:
-example:

Different mutations in the same genetic locus cause similar phenotypes.
-ie. Duchenne MD vs Becker. Same gene, different mutation, similar phenotype.

*dont confuse w/genetic heterogeneity where mutations in different genes can cause similar phenotypes.
*dont confuse w/phenotypic heterogeneity where mutations in the same gene can result in different phenotypes.

56

lysyl oxidase
-whats it do?
-cofactor?
-which disease results in dec. absorption/transport of this cofactor?

-cross links collagen in extracellular space.
-copper
-Menke's disease

57

polydactyly
-think what disease?

Patau
-P & P.

58

In what situation would a legit female have serum karyotyping w/XY?

She gone bone marrow transplant from a male donor!
*her peripheral blood cells will have XY, but rest of her tissues will obviously still have her own XX.

59

Signal sequences for SRP to take halt translation & take ribo+polypep to protein pore in RER:
-what type of AAs in that signal sequence?

hydrophobic.

60

Do sebaceous glands have sym inn?

No.

61

Safranin O
-stains what red?

Cartilage, mast cell granules, & mucin.

62

H.pylori quadruple therapy:

PPI, bismuth subsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole.

63

Red man syndrome of vanc.
-mechanism?
-IgE mediated?
-prevention?

-Rapid infusion of vanc causes histamine release.
-Not IgE mediated!
-Slow infusion rate + pre-treatment w/anti-histamine.

64

leiomyoma
-Sxs:
-whos the pt?

-menorrhagia, miscarriage, palpable mass in lower abdomen, passing clots occasionally.
-black woman in her 30s or 40s (pre-menopausal).

65

Why are chlamydia resistant to penicillins?

1)They're intracellular.
2)They dont have cell wall. They have disulfide bonds in their outer membrane that give them stability instead.

66

Glitazones
-mech:
-tox:

-PPAR receptor agonist, inc. insulin receptor sensitivity.
-weight gain, edema, hepatotox, HEART FAILURE.

*PPAR receptor agonist = for instance, one action of that gene is to inc. GLUT4 receptors on adipocytes.

67

Biguanides: metformin
-mech:
-tox:

-dec gluconeo, inc. glycolysis, inc. peripheral insulin sensitivity.
-lactic acidosis, mild inc. in LFTs, GI upset.

68

Glyburide
-what is it?
-whats it do?

-Sulfonylurea.
-Closes K channel, causes influx of Ca, and release of insulin from pancreas.

*mimics normal action of ATP.

69

Pt shows up to ER w/asthma attack - if she's treat w/b-2 agonist, how long will it take on that nebulizer to experience significant relief?

Could be as long as 15-20 min.
-this shit is not instantaneous!

70

MAP kinase
-what does MAP stand for?

Mitogen Activated Protein kinase.

71

woven bone vs lamellar bone
-which one is immature/pathologic?

woven is either immature or pathologic bone.

72

Only enveloped virus who gets its envelope from nuclear envelope?

herpesvirus

73

Only DNA virus that does NOT replicate in the nucleus:

poxvirus

74

Papovirus
-what is it?

Includes papillomaviridae & polyomaviridae.

75

Lichen Planus
-associated w/which virus?

hepC.

76

Duchenne
-what type of mutation?

frameshift

77

Ego defense: intellectualization
-mature or immature?
-what is it?

-immature.
-man intellectualizing his cancer Dx by researching it extensively & talking about it in a detached fashion.

78

G6PD def.
-why do you get back pain?

Hb in urine = nephrotoxic.
-back pain is from kidney pain.

79

Names some unmyelniated nerves:

-afferent for olfaction, heat, slow pain.
-post-ganglionic autonomic neurons.

80

What can cause a marfanoid body habitus?

-Marfans.
-Homocystinuria.
-Men 2B.

81

genetic heterogeneity vs allelic heterogeneity.
-which one deals w/1 gene and which one deals w/2 genes?

genetic heterogeneity = deals w/2 or more genes.
-allelic deals w/1 gene.

82

Aerobic respiration: how many max ATP?
Anaerobic: how many max ATP?

-38
-2

83

leukoplakia
-occurs on what type of tissue?

Only occurs on mucosal surfaces!

84

Reactive arthritis
-what does this include?

-conjunctivitis/uveitis.
-urethritis.
-arthritis.

85

Callus
-inc. thickness of which layer of skin?
-whats the medical term for this?
-what other disease shows this?

-stratum corneum.
-hyperkaratosis.
-psoriasis.

86

Whats the regulatory protein that dictates the differentiation of a progenitor cell into a more specializes cell?
-growth factor? txn factor?

-transcription factor.
*growth factors usually regulate synthesis of txn factors, but the answer here is txn factors.

87

Peutz-Jegher syndrome
-inheritance:

auto-dom.

88

Can you refer to warfarin as a vitamin-k antagonist?

yes

89

Someone given a mechanical valve, which med do you give them to prevent clot formation. Life-long med.

warfarin.
-NSAIDs wont cut it alone. You can add a daily low-dose aspirin though which will be useful.

90

Which Ig types are made w/o any class switching?

IgM & IgD.

91

CD40 receptor
-is receptor on B cell or T cell?

B cell.

92

H__ is the only histone not in the nucleosome core.

H1

93

Most prevalent lysosomal storage disease:

Gaucher disease.

94

What % occlusion of coronary for stable angina?
-how does it progress to unstable?

-75%
-Thrombus formation w/incomplete coronary occlusion = unstable angina. Someone w/unstable angina needs to be admitted.

95

COX-1 or COX-2
-aspirin blockage of this inhibits platelet aggregation:

COX-1

96

TXA2 production: dep on COX-1 or COX-2?

COX-1

97

focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
-nephrotic or nephritic?
-mnemonic?

-nephrotic.
-focal focal sounds like fuck. HIV pts are fucked and fucking got them their HIV.

98

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)
-nephrotic or nephritic?

nephritic

99

Asthma exacerbation:
-What will CXR show?

CXR is typically normal.

100

Spont. pneumothorax
-trachea deviates toward or away from lesion?

toward.

101

Tension pneumothorax
-trachea deviates toward or away from lesion?

away.

102

nephrogenic DI
-Tx:

hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, amiloride.

103

Ethylene glycol
-how does it result in kidney stones?

Its converted to oxalate.

104

Serum anion gap:
-equation?
-whats normal?

-anion gap = (Na) - (Cl + HCO3)
-normal = 10-14

105

Ethylene glycol poisoning
-presentation:

-anion gap metabolic acidosis
-gross hematuria, flank pain, oliguria.
*its toxic metabolite causes ATN.

106

How does Iron OD cause inc. anion gap metabolic acidosis?

Iron OD => ox. phos. uncoupler (like salicylates) => lactic acidosis => inc. anion gap metabolic acidosis.

107

PCR:
-what happens during cooling (2nd step, after heating)?

Primers bind.
*important to know that the primers are added in excess.

108

Coronal image
-which side is the patients right side?

left side of image.
-just like if a pt was lying down.

109

URI: which sinuses are most commonly affected?
-why?

maxillary sinuses
-bc their path of drainage is located superior to the floor of the sinus. Thus, gravity does not favor drainage of these sinuses.

110

MCA territory infarct
-what sort of visual defect?
-why?

-homonymous hemianopsia.
-can damage optic radiations.

111

Central scotoma
-can it be caused by a vessel occlusion?

Not usually bc macula has more than 1 blood supply.
-usually due to macular degeneration or optic neuritis.

112

Virchow node
-which node?

left supraclavicular.
*you know its left bc thoracic duct drains into it.

113

Sarcomere: what are its borders:
-extends from ______ to _______.
-whats attached to these borders?

Z line to Z line.
-actin.

114

Sarcomere electron micrograph
-whats the darkest portion called? perpendicular to actin/myosin.

Z line.
-where actin attaches.

115

Z-lines
-what overlies the Z-lines?

T tubules & terminal cisternae of SR overlie the Z lines and I bands.

116

Which band doesn't change length during muscle contraction?

A-band.

117

white patches on gingival and oral mucosa
-what is it?

oral thrush most probably.

118

Acute leukemia
-how can the thrombocytopenia present?

Bleeding complications like
-petechiae
-gingival bleeding
-retinal hemorrhages

119

Acute leukemia
-how can the leukopenia present?

Opportunistic infections
-candida (oral thrush).
-aspergillosis
-bacterial pneumonia
-perirectal infection.

120

What is a prominent virulence factor of aspergillus that allows it to disseminate?

Vascular invasion.

121

expansion of red pulp in the spleen
-one common cause?

cirrhotic liver leading to hepatosplenomegaly.
-that excess blood backup in the spleen causes expansion of the red pulp sinusoids.

122

Red pulp of spleen
-structure:

Blood filled sinuses and cords lined by macrophages.

123

esophageal varice hemorrhage
-Tx:
-mechanism?

octreotide
-indirectly constricts splanchnic vasculature by inhibiting splanchnic vasodilators (VIP, glucagon).

124

ADP receptor inhibitors
-which is the only one that is a reversible blocker?

ticagrelor

125

cutaneous anthrax
-is the black eschar painful or painless?

painless

126

A positive ferric chloride test is strongly suggestive of:

An aspirin overdose (b/c phenols are used in production of aspirin and this test looks for phenols).

127

Which thyroid carcnioma spreads hematogenously?

follicular carcinoma