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Flashcards in APUSH Period 3&4 Test Deck (197):
1

What led to the French and British conflicts?

Expansion of British colonists into the interior of North America (Ohio Valley)
Iroquois sided with French

2

What were the impacts of British and French conflicts?

The French were removed from North America (lost a trading partner)
British colonists expanded on to the native lands

3

What was the impacts of the French Indian War?

Britain gained large amounts of land
France was essentually removed
Britain became in debt from war
Sought to raise revenue nd gain more control over colonies

4

What was the impacts of the French Indian War for the English colonies?

Salutary Neglect Ends
Britain begins to collect taxes (Sugar Act 1764, Stamp Act 1765)
Tensions from war helped lead to the American Revolution

5

Post 7 Years War, what did Britain seek to limit?

Expansion

6

What forbade expansion west of the Appalachian Mountains for English colonies?

Proclamation Line

7

Natives resisted what of colonists?

encroachment (Pontiac's Rebellion)

8

What united colonists against the British?

British taxes without colonial representation or consent

9

Who created taxes without colonial representation, stating they were virtually respresented?

Parliment

10

In what way was colonists okay with colonial taxes?

If they could vote for representation

11

Colonists successfully _ taxes (stamp and townshed) and they developed more _ in their cause.

boycotted; resolve

12

What did Enlightenment inspire American political thinkers to emphasize on?

Individual talent over hereditary privilege

13

Simular to the Great Awakening, what else challenged traditional authoirty?

Enlightenment

14

Who was an Enlightenment thinker that advocated legal and political equality for all, as well as the end of special privilages for elites?

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

15

After the Revolutionary War, what was outlawed in many states?

primogeniture

16

Who inherits most, if not all, of property?

Eldest son

17

Colonial legislatures allowed for significant amounts of what?

self government (which most colonists held dear)

18

What result from Britain taxing more to colonists?

Colonists resisted the acts

19

Colonists were okay with _ _ taxes, not _ taxes.

Colonial legislature; Parliment

20

Were colonial legislatures elected by colonists?

Yes

21

Was Parliment elected by colonists?

no

22

What was Thomas Paines Common Sense?

Challenged KG3
it was common sense to break from the corrupt monarch
Little island couldnt rule large continent

23

What was the Declaration of Independence?

Inspired by Enlightenment ideas (Locke, Paine)
All men had the natural rights of Life Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness

24

What were the Articles of Confederation and State Constitutions?

Feared strong centralized goverment (Britain)
Articles and state Constitutions had strong legislature branches
Property requirements for voting and citizenship - fear the masses

25

What was the challenge of trade under the Articles?

each state could place tariffs on goods from otehr states - discouraged trade between states

26

What was teh challenge of finances under the Articles?

Each state could coin its own money, differing values, high inflaction in some states, also discouraged trade (some states had debt from Rev war; Fedural goverment couldnt require taxes)

27

What were the challenges under the Articles?

Trade
Finances
Foreign relations
Internal unrest

28

What was teh challege of Foreign relations under the articles?

Britain refused commerical treaties with US
Congress could not control commerce (Sanctions against Britain)
Spain- cut off access to Mississippi river
Both countries supplied indians with weapons

29

What was the challenges of internal unrest under the articles?

Shay's Rebellion: MA farmers demanded debt relief, attacked court houses

30

The challenges under the Articles helped many Americans realize stronger _ _ was needed.

Central government

31

What were the 2 Compromises at the Constitutional convention?

Great Compromise (Conneticut Compromise) and 3/5 Compromise

32

What was the Great/Conneticut compromise?

Roger Sherman
Combined VA plan (large states) and NJ plan (small states)
Created bicameral system
A census would be taken every 10 years to determine population

33

What was the 3/5 Compromise?

For the purpose of representation, 3/5 slaves woud count as 1 person in South

34

Both Great and 3/5 Compromse settled issues of what?

Representation

35

What was there a limit on under the constitiution?

Federal power

36

What is the division of power between state and federal goverment?

Federalism

37

What did Federalism do?

Gave Specific powers for both the federal and state governments

38

Why was the constitution finally radified?

Federalists (those who favored the constitiution) promised to add Bill of Rights that protected liberties

39

What as added shortly after the constitution was ratified?

first 10 admendments

40

Political parties emerged over what issues?

Relationship between national goverment and states
Economic policy
Foreign affairs

41

What happened within relatonships between national governments and states?

Federalists favored stronger national governments
Democrates/Republicans favored a smaller government
VA and KY Resolutions

42

What are the VA and KY resolutions?

belief that states could nulify federal laws

43

What happened within economic policies?

Hamilton's Financial Plan (Federalists) would strengthen the federal goverment
The creation of the BUS wasnt mentioned in Constitution
Hamilton argues Necessary and Proper or elsastic clauses

44

What happened within forein affairs?

Federalists favored Britain (trade)
Democratic and Repulicans favored France (saw French Rev as an extension to American Rev)

45

What was the Republican Motherhood?

Women were expected to instil republican values in children and families
Increased educational oppurtunities in women

46

Who were the federalist's against?

anti-federalists

47

What was written to advocate the radification of the constitution?

Federalist papers

48

What was established by Washington and Adams?

Institutions and precedents

49

What was created by Washington and Adams under institutions and precedents?

2nd term tradition (until 22 amendments by Washington)
creation of cabinet
creation of the Bank of US (BUS) Alexander Hamilton

50

What was the order of the Acts?

Sugar Act 1764
Stamp Act 1765
Quartering Act 1765
Declaration Act 1766
Townshead and Revenue Act 1767
Tea Act 1773
Intolerable Act 1774

51

After the French lost the 7 years war, what arose and continured throughout the late 18th century?

White Indian conflicts

52

Where were the Paxton Boys located?

Pennsylvania

53

Who were the Paxton Boys?

Scots-Irish group that was upset with Pennsylvania's leniency toward Natives

54

What did the Paxton boys do?

Murdered 20 Natives then marched to Philadelphia with demands

55

Who helped resolved the march by promising to consider their issues?

Ben Franklin

56

When and where was the battle of Fallen Timbers?

1794; Ohio

57

What was the battle of Fallen Timbers?

Natives, led by Little Turtle, defeated Americans
Killed 630 Americans

58

What treaty did the Indians sign after their defeat in 1794?

Treaty of Greenville

59

What was the impact of the battle of Fallen Timbers?

Natives ceded a lot of land
Were allowed to keep some land but it was later encroached

60

Due to migration within North America, what emerged around the world?

backcountry culture

61

What did back country cultures fuel?

social and ethnic tensions

62

What was the impact of back country culture?

Scots-Irish
Shay's Rebellion

63

Where did Scots-Irish settle?

Frontier (edge of settlements)
Settled on land without regard to ownership (government, natives)

64

What rebellion was a rebellion of farmers that demanded an end of foreclosures, imprisionment for debts, and paper currency? (closed courts)

Shay's Rebellion

65

Scots-Irish and Shay's rebellion illustrated tensions between what groups?

poor (back country) and wealthy (interior)

66

Where did Spain expand settlements in the 1760s?

California

67

What was created when Spain moved to California?

Missions (forts)
trade expanded

68

What happened to Natvies when Spain moved to California?

died from disease
forced to convert to Christianity

69

What was the Northwest Land Ordinance 1787?

Created a process to admit new states (60,000 pop)
Guaranteed freedom of religion and trial by jury (before Bill of Right)
Slavery was abolished (Civil War starter)
A portion of land sales went to fund education

70

What treaty helped settle conlict between US and Britain (British were attacking US ships, still had presence in key ports)?

Jay's treaty

71

What treaty was where Spain, fearing a British-US alliance, signed it. (US could navigate the Mississippi, given right to of deposit in New Orleans, Florida boundry was fixed where US wanted it)?

Pinckney's Treaty

72

What were the reasons for political parties?

Economic
Political
Foreign policies

73

What were regional differences in political parties?

Urban, wealthy upper class tended to be Federalists (merchants/trading)
Rural farmers, middle to low class tended to be Democratic Republican

74

Jefferson believed that farmers were _ of the economy.

Backbone

75

What economic policies did the political groups believe in?

Federalists: Hamiltons Financial Plan; BUS
D/R: were wary of it

76

Did Federalists want a strong central government?

yes

77

Who did each politcal party favor in foreign policy?

Federalists: Britain (trade)
D/R: France (French Rev was an etension of American Rev)

78

What became a staple crop of the south?

Cotton

79

What was the impact of cotton exhausting lands?

Plantations moved west

80

What did many Southerners see slavery as?

neccssary evil but then positive good

81

Cotton becomes _

king

82

Who created the cotton gin?

Eli Whitning

83

When did the Republican motherhood emerge?

during and after Rev war

84

What was the Republican motherhood?

It was the duty of mothers to raise good citizens
Women became a leading teacher of their children of values and citizenry

85

What was a result of the Republican motherhood

women gained more access to education

86

In the development of the 1st and 2nd political party systems, what did federalists favor?

strong central government
supported by upperclass (merchants, bankers)
Pro British
Loose interpretations of the Constiution

87

In the developent of the 1st and 2nd political party systems, what did D/R favor?

state rights
supported by lower and middle class (farmers)
Pro French
Strict interpretation of the constitution

88

What two thing did D/R and Federalist party develop out of?

French Rev
Hamilton's Financial Plan

89

Under the 2nd Political Party System, what were democrats led by?

Andrew Jackson (Common Man)
against BUS and other elite organizations

90

Under the 2nd Political Party System, what were the Whigs led by?

Anti Andrew Jackson
favored stronger federal government
internal improvemnts
BUS

91

The supreme court strengthened the power of the _ _ often at the expense of _ _.

federal government; state government

92

What trial established the principle of judicial review?

Marbury v. Madison

93

What trial upheld constitutionality of the 2nd BUS and gave more power to the federal than states?

McCulloch v. Maryland

94

What trial started taht Congress, NOT states, can control interstate commerce?

Gibson v. Ogden

95

With a growing economy, Americans debated the role of what?

government in the economy

96

What convention was where New England delegates were upset with embargos and War of 1812 (cut off trade to Britain - major trading partner) and proposed several ammendments including tougher restrictions for declaring war and passing ebargos?

Hartford Convention

97

What were internation improvements?

Debates over the role of federal government in intrastate improvements
(Mayesville road veto 1830
Jackson vetoed a bill for the roach which would only be in KY)

98

Regional, political, and economic loyalities overshadowed what?

national concerns

99

What was the event where SC and other southern states opposed the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832; SC even nullified the tariffs?

Nullification Crisis 1833

100

Who threatened to secede if Jackson collected tariffs by force?

South Carolina

101

What was Webster's 2nd reply to Hayne?

Webster promoted nationalism over sectionalism

102

Why did many whites in the South associate their regional idenity through the pride of slavery?

Wealthy's saw themselves as aristocrats; owning slaves was a sign of wealth
Poor favored slavery so they were higher on the social order in society

103

What ways were people resistant to initiative for democracy?

Proslavery arguments
Xenophobia
Anti black sentiments in political and popular culture
Restrictive anti indian policies

104

What increased pro slavery arguments?

Nat Turner's Rebellion 1831

105

Who wrote "Slavery as a Postive Good"?

John Calhoun

106

What was "Slavery as a Positive Good"?

argued that slaves worked under better condiions than industrial workers in the north

107

What would some advocates use to justify slavery?

Bible

108

Who also had proslavery arguements?

George Fitzhugh

109

What is xeophobia?

fear of foreigners

110

What is nativism?

pro native born Americans and hostility to foreign born individuals

111

What were immigrants accused of?

stealing jobs by working for less money

112

Why were the Irish heavily discriminated?

belief that they stole elections

113

What was the Know Nothing Party (American Party)?

hoped to pass immigration restrictions laws; became a powerful political party in the 1850s

114

What was the Know Nothing Party simular to?

American Protetive Association of late 19th century

115

How were anti black sentiments in political and popular culture?

Minstrel shows (varity shows using black face)

116

Where were indians removed to in the Indian Removal Act 1830?

tribes in Georgia were moved west of Mississippi River

117

How did Jackson ignore the supreme courts ruling in Worchester v. Georgia?

Natives were forced to moved (Trail of tears)

118

What was the World's first Modern mass democracy?

United States

119

What did the 2nd Great Awakening and social ideas from abroad help to inspire?

humans to achieve perfection

120

Who had massive sermans to convert individuals?

Charles Finney

121

What convension was a womens rights convention in NY and Elizabeth Cady Stranton and Lucretia Mott made it?

Seneca Falls 1848

122

What are utopian societies?

social experiments that hoped to achieve perfection in communites (oneas, Brookfarms)

123

What technilogical innovations increased efficenicy and extended markets?

Textile machines
Steam engines
Interchangable parts
Canals
Railroads
Telegraph

124

What did textile machines do?

made production faster (Spinning Jenny)

125

What did steam engines do?

allowed boats to go against the current

126

What did interchangable parts do?

increased production (Eli Whitney)

127

What did canals do?

shipped goods further (Erie Canal)

128

What happened to railroads?

increased drastically

129

What did telegraph do?

information spread more rapidly

130

Who was the father of the factory system?

Samuel Slater

131

What did more and more Americans shift from?

Subsistence farming to producing goods

132

What did entrepreneurs focus on?

financing

133

What was the name of the factory system in MA where daughters worked in factories in 8 hour shifts and lived in houses and dormatories?

Lowell system

134

Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivationg southern cotton, shaped what?

settlement patterns
the national ad international economy

135

What were the impacts of cotton?

Raw material used in textile production in the northeast
Economic ties incresed (specialization for each region)
Trade with European countries (Britain France) shaped international economy
The internal slave trade increased as demands for slaves increased

136

Did unified national economy ever fully come to fruition?

no

137

Who was linked together more than with the south?

North and middle

138

What was Henry Clay's 3 parts?

1) Internal Improvemnts - road, canals, etc
2) Tariffs (1816) goal was use to fund internal improvements
3) Bank of US

139

How did the American system have its eritics?

inter v. intra
state trade

140

Who vetoed the Maysville Road

Andrew Jackson

141

What were the two impacts of seeking natural resources?

Free migration of people
Forced migration of people

142

Why was their free migration of people?

Populations grew
Threats were removed (War of 1812)
more Americans expanded west

143

Why was their forced migration of people?

Slavery expanded farther and farther west (Civil War starter)
Native Americans-Indian Removal Act and Trail of Tears

144

How did unions begin?

Commonwealth v. Hunt - MA State Supreme Court decision ruling that labor unions were legal

145

When did labor unions become more populat?

In the later years

146

The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on what?

migration patterns
gender and family relations
distribution of political power

147

What increased american migration westward?

Canals (Erie), roads

148

What else did canals and roads do besides helped migration westward?

Shipments of goods

149

What did new communities replace?

Old family and local relationships

150

What developed under new community systems?

churches
schools
taverns

151

What played an instrumental role in new communites?

religion (gatherings for Bible readings)

152

Where did immigrants from Europe tend to settle?

East and Midwest

153

What did immigrants moving to the east and midwest increase?

interdependence between northeast and Old Northwest

154

What did Germans do?

lived in Ohio as farmers

155

What did Irish do?

urban workers in cities (Potato famine in 1840s to 1850s)

156

How did the south remain distinct culturally?

Plantations helped define the region - so economically profitable

157

How did the south remain distinct politically?

Plantation owners had significant power; laws protected and reinforced slavery

158

What did many wealthy whites view themselves as?

Aristocrats

159

How did the south remain distinct in ideologically?

Honor in the south was different in the south than north (dwelling persisted)

160

Who was the defender of slavery, said to women "Women, like children, have but one right, and tht is teh right to be protected." The right of protection involves the right to obey?

George Fitzhugh

161

Exports to Europe fueled what?

economic growth

162

What were the results of the Market revolution?

Gap between rich and poor increased
New emerging middle class
Home and workplace become more seperate
Gender and family roles and expectations changed drastically

163

Did people begin to work outside their home more often?

yes

164

What was the Cult of Domesticty?

Seperate spheres for women
Expectation was to be subordinate to men and raise children

165

Who was an abolitonist and womens rights activist?

Lydia Maria Child

166

What became a major focus for many political leader stances on several issues?

Sectionalism, not nationalism

167

How was sectionalism a major focus for many political leader stances for slavery?

increasing tensions between north and south as teh late 19th century went on (Fugitive slave law)

168

How was sectionalism a major focus for many political leader stances for the National Bank?

Northeast tended to be for the BUS
South was against

169

How was sectionalism a major focus for many political leader stances for internal improvemnets?

West was not developed as other areas

170

How was sectionalism a major focus for many political leader stances for tariffs?

Favored by north manufactorers
disliked by south

171

What did the US do after the Louisiana Purchase?

expand trade and contact beyond the border

172

What was significant about the new Oregon border?

US and Canada eventually settled in the 49th Parallel

173

What was significant about annexing Texas?

After Texas declared independence, the US added Texas in 1845 (debates over slavery)

174

What was significant about the US trading with China?

Treaty of Wanghia (1844) improved trading rights for US in China

175

In what ways did the US seek to dominate North America?

military
judical actions
diplomatic efforts

176

What did the Monroe doctrine do?

Warned Europe to stay out of Latin America, in return US would stay out of European affairs

177

What was the Webster-Ashburton Treaty?

helped resolve the Maine/Canada boundry dispute (Aroostook War)

178

Various American groups and individuals initiated, championed, and/or resisted what?

expansion of territory and/or government powers

179

What were debates raised about?

expansion
incorportation of new territories

180

What did the Missouri Compromise desire to balance?

number of free and slave states

181

Who resisted the authority of the federal government?

North and South states

182

What was New England's reaction to the War of 1812 and embargoes against Britain?

Hartford Conversation

183

What was southeners reaction to high tariffs (SC Exosition and Protest)?

Nullification Crisis

184

Who advocated for expansion?

those living on the frontier

185

Who started Warhawks during War of 1812?

Henry Clay

186

After War of 1812, why were Indians on the frontier less of a threat?

they were pushed west

187

What were the two Native American conflicts and federal efforts to control Natives?

Indian Removal Act
Seminole Wars

188

What was the Indian Removal Act?

supported by southerners, pushed Natives west of the Mississippi River

189

What was the Trail of Tears?

forced removal west of MIssissippi

190

What were the Seminole Wars?

series of wars with Natives in Florida

191

The American acquistion of lands in teh West gave rise to what?

contest over the extension of slavery into western territories
a series of attempts at national compromise

192

Missouri Compromise had _ _ success, but eventually _ _.

short term; broke down

193

What were the 3 parts of the Missouri Compromise?

ME= free
MO = slave
36 degrees 30'

194

Who warned of the Missouri Compromises affects?

Thomas Jefferson

195

What was the MO compromise later overturned by?

KS-NB Act

196

What did the KS-NB act lead to?

Bleeding Kansas

197

What was the cause of increased tensions and debates over national goals, priorities, and strategies?

Slavery expanding to the Southwest