Flashcards in APUSH Period 3&4 Test Deck (197):
What led to the French and British conflicts?
Expansion of British colonists into the interior of North America (Ohio Valley)
Iroquois sided with French
What were the impacts of British and French conflicts?
The French were removed from North America (lost a trading partner)
British colonists expanded on to the native lands
What was the impacts of the French Indian War?
Britain gained large amounts of land
France was essentually removed
Britain became in debt from war
Sought to raise revenue nd gain more control over colonies
What was the impacts of the French Indian War for the English colonies?
Salutary Neglect Ends
Britain begins to collect taxes (Sugar Act 1764, Stamp Act 1765)
Tensions from war helped lead to the American Revolution
Post 7 Years War, what did Britain seek to limit?
What forbade expansion west of the Appalachian Mountains for English colonies?
Natives resisted what of colonists?
encroachment (Pontiac's Rebellion)
What united colonists against the British?
British taxes without colonial representation or consent
Who created taxes without colonial representation, stating they were virtually respresented?
In what way was colonists okay with colonial taxes?
If they could vote for representation
Colonists successfully _ taxes (stamp and townshed) and they developed more _ in their cause.
What did Enlightenment inspire American political thinkers to emphasize on?
Individual talent over hereditary privilege
Simular to the Great Awakening, what else challenged traditional authoirty?
Who was an Enlightenment thinker that advocated legal and political equality for all, as well as the end of special privilages for elites?
After the Revolutionary War, what was outlawed in many states?
Who inherits most, if not all, of property?
Colonial legislatures allowed for significant amounts of what?
self government (which most colonists held dear)
What result from Britain taxing more to colonists?
Colonists resisted the acts
Colonists were okay with _ _ taxes, not _ taxes.
Colonial legislature; Parliment
Were colonial legislatures elected by colonists?
Was Parliment elected by colonists?
What was Thomas Paines Common Sense?
it was common sense to break from the corrupt monarch
Little island couldnt rule large continent
What was the Declaration of Independence?
Inspired by Enlightenment ideas (Locke, Paine)
All men had the natural rights of Life Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness
What were the Articles of Confederation and State Constitutions?
Feared strong centralized goverment (Britain)
Articles and state Constitutions had strong legislature branches
Property requirements for voting and citizenship - fear the masses
What was the challenge of trade under the Articles?
each state could place tariffs on goods from otehr states - discouraged trade between states
What was teh challenge of finances under the Articles?
Each state could coin its own money, differing values, high inflaction in some states, also discouraged trade (some states had debt from Rev war; Fedural goverment couldnt require taxes)
What were the challenges under the Articles?
What was teh challege of Foreign relations under the articles?
Britain refused commerical treaties with US
Congress could not control commerce (Sanctions against Britain)
Spain- cut off access to Mississippi river
Both countries supplied indians with weapons
What was the challenges of internal unrest under the articles?
Shay's Rebellion: MA farmers demanded debt relief, attacked court houses
The challenges under the Articles helped many Americans realize stronger _ _ was needed.
What were the 2 Compromises at the Constitutional convention?
Great Compromise (Conneticut Compromise) and 3/5 Compromise
What was the Great/Conneticut compromise?
Combined VA plan (large states) and NJ plan (small states)
Created bicameral system
A census would be taken every 10 years to determine population
What was the 3/5 Compromise?
For the purpose of representation, 3/5 slaves woud count as 1 person in South
Both Great and 3/5 Compromse settled issues of what?
What was there a limit on under the constitiution?
What is the division of power between state and federal goverment?
What did Federalism do?
Gave Specific powers for both the federal and state governments
Why was the constitution finally radified?
Federalists (those who favored the constitiution) promised to add Bill of Rights that protected liberties
What as added shortly after the constitution was ratified?
first 10 admendments
Political parties emerged over what issues?
Relationship between national goverment and states
What happened within relatonships between national governments and states?
Federalists favored stronger national governments
Democrates/Republicans favored a smaller government
VA and KY Resolutions
What are the VA and KY resolutions?
belief that states could nulify federal laws
What happened within economic policies?
Hamilton's Financial Plan (Federalists) would strengthen the federal goverment
The creation of the BUS wasnt mentioned in Constitution
Hamilton argues Necessary and Proper or elsastic clauses
What happened within forein affairs?
Federalists favored Britain (trade)
Democratic and Repulicans favored France (saw French Rev as an extension to American Rev)
What was the Republican Motherhood?
Women were expected to instil republican values in children and families
Increased educational oppurtunities in women
Who were the federalist's against?
What was written to advocate the radification of the constitution?
What was established by Washington and Adams?
Institutions and precedents
What was created by Washington and Adams under institutions and precedents?
2nd term tradition (until 22 amendments by Washington)
creation of cabinet
creation of the Bank of US (BUS) Alexander Hamilton
What was the order of the Acts?
Sugar Act 1764
Stamp Act 1765
Quartering Act 1765
Declaration Act 1766
Townshead and Revenue Act 1767
Tea Act 1773
Intolerable Act 1774
After the French lost the 7 years war, what arose and continured throughout the late 18th century?
White Indian conflicts
Where were the Paxton Boys located?
Who were the Paxton Boys?
Scots-Irish group that was upset with Pennsylvania's leniency toward Natives
What did the Paxton boys do?
Murdered 20 Natives then marched to Philadelphia with demands
Who helped resolved the march by promising to consider their issues?
When and where was the battle of Fallen Timbers?
What was the battle of Fallen Timbers?
Natives, led by Little Turtle, defeated Americans
Killed 630 Americans
What treaty did the Indians sign after their defeat in 1794?
Treaty of Greenville
What was the impact of the battle of Fallen Timbers?
Natives ceded a lot of land
Were allowed to keep some land but it was later encroached
Due to migration within North America, what emerged around the world?
What did back country cultures fuel?
social and ethnic tensions
What was the impact of back country culture?
Where did Scots-Irish settle?
Frontier (edge of settlements)
Settled on land without regard to ownership (government, natives)
What rebellion was a rebellion of farmers that demanded an end of foreclosures, imprisionment for debts, and paper currency? (closed courts)
Scots-Irish and Shay's rebellion illustrated tensions between what groups?
poor (back country) and wealthy (interior)
Where did Spain expand settlements in the 1760s?
What was created when Spain moved to California?
What happened to Natvies when Spain moved to California?
died from disease
forced to convert to Christianity
What was the Northwest Land Ordinance 1787?
Created a process to admit new states (60,000 pop)
Guaranteed freedom of religion and trial by jury (before Bill of Right)
Slavery was abolished (Civil War starter)
A portion of land sales went to fund education
What treaty helped settle conlict between US and Britain (British were attacking US ships, still had presence in key ports)?
What treaty was where Spain, fearing a British-US alliance, signed it. (US could navigate the Mississippi, given right to of deposit in New Orleans, Florida boundry was fixed where US wanted it)?
What were the reasons for political parties?
What were regional differences in political parties?
Urban, wealthy upper class tended to be Federalists (merchants/trading)
Rural farmers, middle to low class tended to be Democratic Republican
Jefferson believed that farmers were _ of the economy.
What economic policies did the political groups believe in?
Federalists: Hamiltons Financial Plan; BUS
D/R: were wary of it
Did Federalists want a strong central government?
Who did each politcal party favor in foreign policy?
Federalists: Britain (trade)
D/R: France (French Rev was an etension of American Rev)
What became a staple crop of the south?
What was the impact of cotton exhausting lands?
Plantations moved west
What did many Southerners see slavery as?
neccssary evil but then positive good
Cotton becomes _
Who created the cotton gin?
When did the Republican motherhood emerge?
during and after Rev war
What was the Republican motherhood?
It was the duty of mothers to raise good citizens
Women became a leading teacher of their children of values and citizenry
What was a result of the Republican motherhood
women gained more access to education
In the development of the 1st and 2nd political party systems, what did federalists favor?
strong central government
supported by upperclass (merchants, bankers)
Loose interpretations of the Constiution
In the developent of the 1st and 2nd political party systems, what did D/R favor?
supported by lower and middle class (farmers)
Strict interpretation of the constitution
What two thing did D/R and Federalist party develop out of?
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Under the 2nd Political Party System, what were democrats led by?
Andrew Jackson (Common Man)
against BUS and other elite organizations
Under the 2nd Political Party System, what were the Whigs led by?
Anti Andrew Jackson
favored stronger federal government
The supreme court strengthened the power of the _ _ often at the expense of _ _.
federal government; state government
What trial established the principle of judicial review?
Marbury v. Madison
What trial upheld constitutionality of the 2nd BUS and gave more power to the federal than states?
McCulloch v. Maryland
What trial started taht Congress, NOT states, can control interstate commerce?
Gibson v. Ogden
With a growing economy, Americans debated the role of what?
government in the economy
What convention was where New England delegates were upset with embargos and War of 1812 (cut off trade to Britain - major trading partner) and proposed several ammendments including tougher restrictions for declaring war and passing ebargos?
What were internation improvements?
Debates over the role of federal government in intrastate improvements
(Mayesville road veto 1830
Jackson vetoed a bill for the roach which would only be in KY)
Regional, political, and economic loyalities overshadowed what?
What was the event where SC and other southern states opposed the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832; SC even nullified the tariffs?
Nullification Crisis 1833
Who threatened to secede if Jackson collected tariffs by force?
What was Webster's 2nd reply to Hayne?
Webster promoted nationalism over sectionalism
Why did many whites in the South associate their regional idenity through the pride of slavery?
Wealthy's saw themselves as aristocrats; owning slaves was a sign of wealth
Poor favored slavery so they were higher on the social order in society
What ways were people resistant to initiative for democracy?
Anti black sentiments in political and popular culture
Restrictive anti indian policies
What increased pro slavery arguments?
Nat Turner's Rebellion 1831
Who wrote "Slavery as a Postive Good"?
What was "Slavery as a Positive Good"?
argued that slaves worked under better condiions than industrial workers in the north
What would some advocates use to justify slavery?
Who also had proslavery arguements?
What is xeophobia?
fear of foreigners
What is nativism?
pro native born Americans and hostility to foreign born individuals
What were immigrants accused of?
stealing jobs by working for less money
Why were the Irish heavily discriminated?
belief that they stole elections
What was the Know Nothing Party (American Party)?
hoped to pass immigration restrictions laws; became a powerful political party in the 1850s
What was the Know Nothing Party simular to?
American Protetive Association of late 19th century
How were anti black sentiments in political and popular culture?
Minstrel shows (varity shows using black face)
Where were indians removed to in the Indian Removal Act 1830?
tribes in Georgia were moved west of Mississippi River
How did Jackson ignore the supreme courts ruling in Worchester v. Georgia?
Natives were forced to moved (Trail of tears)
What was the World's first Modern mass democracy?
What did the 2nd Great Awakening and social ideas from abroad help to inspire?
humans to achieve perfection
Who had massive sermans to convert individuals?
What convension was a womens rights convention in NY and Elizabeth Cady Stranton and Lucretia Mott made it?
Seneca Falls 1848
What are utopian societies?
social experiments that hoped to achieve perfection in communites (oneas, Brookfarms)
What technilogical innovations increased efficenicy and extended markets?
What did textile machines do?
made production faster (Spinning Jenny)
What did steam engines do?
allowed boats to go against the current
What did interchangable parts do?
increased production (Eli Whitney)
What did canals do?
shipped goods further (Erie Canal)
What happened to railroads?
What did telegraph do?
information spread more rapidly
Who was the father of the factory system?
What did more and more Americans shift from?
Subsistence farming to producing goods
What did entrepreneurs focus on?
What was the name of the factory system in MA where daughters worked in factories in 8 hour shifts and lived in houses and dormatories?
Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivationg southern cotton, shaped what?
the national ad international economy
What were the impacts of cotton?
Raw material used in textile production in the northeast
Economic ties incresed (specialization for each region)
Trade with European countries (Britain France) shaped international economy
The internal slave trade increased as demands for slaves increased
Did unified national economy ever fully come to fruition?
Who was linked together more than with the south?
North and middle
What was Henry Clay's 3 parts?
1) Internal Improvemnts - road, canals, etc
2) Tariffs (1816) goal was use to fund internal improvements
3) Bank of US
How did the American system have its eritics?
inter v. intra
Who vetoed the Maysville Road
What were the two impacts of seeking natural resources?
Free migration of people
Forced migration of people
Why was their free migration of people?
Threats were removed (War of 1812)
more Americans expanded west
Why was their forced migration of people?
Slavery expanded farther and farther west (Civil War starter)
Native Americans-Indian Removal Act and Trail of Tears
How did unions begin?
Commonwealth v. Hunt - MA State Supreme Court decision ruling that labor unions were legal
When did labor unions become more populat?
In the later years
The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on what?
gender and family relations
distribution of political power
What increased american migration westward?
Canals (Erie), roads
What else did canals and roads do besides helped migration westward?
Shipments of goods
What did new communities replace?
Old family and local relationships
What developed under new community systems?
What played an instrumental role in new communites?
religion (gatherings for Bible readings)
Where did immigrants from Europe tend to settle?
East and Midwest
What did immigrants moving to the east and midwest increase?
interdependence between northeast and Old Northwest
What did Germans do?
lived in Ohio as farmers
What did Irish do?
urban workers in cities (Potato famine in 1840s to 1850s)
How did the south remain distinct culturally?
Plantations helped define the region - so economically profitable
How did the south remain distinct politically?
Plantation owners had significant power; laws protected and reinforced slavery
What did many wealthy whites view themselves as?
How did the south remain distinct in ideologically?
Honor in the south was different in the south than north (dwelling persisted)
Who was the defender of slavery, said to women "Women, like children, have but one right, and tht is teh right to be protected." The right of protection involves the right to obey?
Exports to Europe fueled what?
What were the results of the Market revolution?
Gap between rich and poor increased
New emerging middle class
Home and workplace become more seperate
Gender and family roles and expectations changed drastically
Did people begin to work outside their home more often?
What was the Cult of Domesticty?
Seperate spheres for women
Expectation was to be subordinate to men and raise children
Who was an abolitonist and womens rights activist?
Lydia Maria Child
What became a major focus for many political leader stances on several issues?
Sectionalism, not nationalism
How was sectionalism a major focus for many political leader stances for slavery?
increasing tensions between north and south as teh late 19th century went on (Fugitive slave law)
How was sectionalism a major focus for many political leader stances for the National Bank?
Northeast tended to be for the BUS
South was against
How was sectionalism a major focus for many political leader stances for internal improvemnets?
West was not developed as other areas
How was sectionalism a major focus for many political leader stances for tariffs?
Favored by north manufactorers
disliked by south
What did the US do after the Louisiana Purchase?
expand trade and contact beyond the border
What was significant about the new Oregon border?
US and Canada eventually settled in the 49th Parallel
What was significant about annexing Texas?
After Texas declared independence, the US added Texas in 1845 (debates over slavery)
What was significant about the US trading with China?
Treaty of Wanghia (1844) improved trading rights for US in China
In what ways did the US seek to dominate North America?
What did the Monroe doctrine do?
Warned Europe to stay out of Latin America, in return US would stay out of European affairs
What was the Webster-Ashburton Treaty?
helped resolve the Maine/Canada boundry dispute (Aroostook War)
Various American groups and individuals initiated, championed, and/or resisted what?
expansion of territory and/or government powers
What were debates raised about?
incorportation of new territories
What did the Missouri Compromise desire to balance?
number of free and slave states
Who resisted the authority of the federal government?
North and South states
What was New England's reaction to the War of 1812 and embargoes against Britain?
What was southeners reaction to high tariffs (SC Exosition and Protest)?
Who advocated for expansion?
those living on the frontier
Who started Warhawks during War of 1812?
After War of 1812, why were Indians on the frontier less of a threat?
they were pushed west
What were the two Native American conflicts and federal efforts to control Natives?
Indian Removal Act
What was the Indian Removal Act?
supported by southerners, pushed Natives west of the Mississippi River
What was the Trail of Tears?
forced removal west of MIssissippi
What were the Seminole Wars?
series of wars with Natives in Florida
The American acquistion of lands in teh West gave rise to what?
contest over the extension of slavery into western territories
a series of attempts at national compromise
Missouri Compromise had _ _ success, but eventually _ _.
short term; broke down
What were the 3 parts of the Missouri Compromise?
MO = slave
36 degrees 30'
Who warned of the Missouri Compromises affects?
What was the MO compromise later overturned by?
What did the KS-NB act lead to?