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Flashcards in Cardio Deck (45):
1

Why is the wolf Parkinson's triad

Short PR

Delta wave

Wide QRS

2

What is it to have an accessory AV pathway

Wolf Parkinson's white syndrome

3

Common treatment for stable angina

sublingual nitroglycerine

4

Nitrates work via

↑ NO --> ↑ cGMP

relax smooth muscle

dilate veins >>>> arteries

↓ Preload

5

What cardiac abnormality is seen in turner

Bicuspid aortic valve

6

This drug blocks p2y on plt ADP receptors. Can be used in place of aspirin for CV health

Clopidogrel

7

What does cardiac output equal

CO= SV x HR

8

From Lateral to medial, what is the "stuff" in femoral triangle

Femoral : Nerve- Artery- Vein
Nerve is most lateral
Vein is most medial

9

What is the relationship between IVC and R Renal Artery

The right renal artery runs below the ivc!!

10

Please name a reversable and an irreverasable alpha blocker

Reversable: Phentolamine

Irreversable: Phenoxybenzamine

11

What are the dead on signs for digoxin toxicity

Life threating arythmia (of any type)
Changes in color vision

12

What is BNP

Brain natriuretic peptide
Elevated in heart failure
Released by ventricles in response to stress

13

What does BNP cause

vasodilation
Diuresis
↓ BP

*thus its natural actions relives s/s of heart failure

14

What is wrong with this BP, and what is the cause:
180/70

↑ systolic with normal diastolic

This is caused by decreased aortic compliance with ageing

Very common problem

15

What valve does rheumatic heart disease affect

can affect the aortic.

16

Herditary Pulm Hypertension is caused by

inactivating mutation of BMPR2

17

What is the side effct of doxorubicin

Dialated cardiomyopathy

18

How does an MAOi work

inhibits monoamine degradation

19

What are the classic signs of cardiac tamponade

Hypotension
↑ JVD
Muffled heart sounds

Beck triad

*shows a drop in pulse amplitude during inspiration

20

Which tissue has the highest demand for oxygen

The heart

21

What is inotropy

cardiac cantractlity

22

What is lusitropy

cardiac relaxation

23

What is chronotropy

slowing of heart rate

24

How does ivabradine work

Slows heart rate by inhibiting funny sodium channels

Prolongs slow depolarization phase

DOES NOT change intotroy or lusitropy

25

Blood flow is directly porportional to the vessel radius ______

Raised to the 4th power

Ex: a vessel decreasesby a factor of 16 is 50% smaller

2^4= 16, thus half as big

26

This a rare and serious side effect of ACE inhibitors

Angioedema
It is due to increased bradykinin--> ↑ Vascular permablity--> swelling

STOP ACE i in these pts

27

What is mitochondria vacuolization

Irreversable damge to mitochondria

28

What is pyknosis

nuclear shrinkage

29

How much stenosis must be present to feel angina

> 75 % obstruction

30

What extra heart sound is normal in young people

s3

31

what extra heart sound is normal in old people

s4

32

What is s4

When the LV is hypertrophied

The atria is trying to push blood out against a stiff ventricle, you basically hear it hitting the LV

33

What is cilostazol

phosphodiesterase inhibitor

prevents plt aggregation

acts as a direct arterial vasodilator

34

What is the dosing interval for nitrates

Should not take nitrate at night to avoid tolerance and decrease in effectiveness

35

If a pt gets a cough from using an ACE inhbitor, what alternative should you switch to

a sartan aka and angiotenson receptor blocker

ARBS do not raise bradykinin

36

How do you treat a tricyclic antidepresent overdose + how can you tell someone has overdosed

Sodium Bicarb

s/s of TCAD
-AMS
-prolonged QRS
arythmia
-general anti-cholinergic

37

What are cardioselective beta blockers

Metoprolol
Atenolol
Bisoprolol
Nebivolol

* these prefer B1

Never Break My heArt

38

If you are stabbed near your sternum, what probably got hit

The right ventricle

It pretty much takes up the entire anterior surface of the heart

39

What makes up the hearts most posterior surface

Left Atrium

40

______ is the most common cause of death 48 hours after an MI

V-Fib

41

When would cardiac wall rupture likely present in the setting of an MI

3-7 days post MI as debris clean up is happening

42

What electrolyte change in the heart is happening during the QRS

Na is flowing In

43

What electrolyte change is happening during the T wave

K is flowing out

44

Why does sitting up and leaning forward help in pericarditis

relieves the pressure on the pericardium

45

What kind of endocarditis is seen in lupus

Libman Sacks endocarditis

vegitations are seen on both sides of the leaflet