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Flashcards in Why do I bother with names Deck (43):
1

This is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults

Membranous Glomerulopathy

85 % are idiopathic

2

85% of Membranous glomerulopathy is idiopathic, but what's bout that 15%?

secondary to
systemic: DM, solid tumor
Rx s/e: gold, penicillamine, nsaids
Infections: Hep B, c, malaria

3

What is the treatment for radioactive iodine exposure

potassium iodine
competitively inhibits radioactive uptake to prevent radiation induced carcinoma

4

What is the function of hormone sensitive lipase

lives in adipose
breaks down stored triglycerides --> FFA and glycerol
can provide substrate for gluconeogenesis

5

Uniform diffuse glomerular thickening without increased cellularity
spikes with silver stain
IgG and C3 deposits

membranous glomerulopathy

6

What are the symptoms of lead poisoning

Constipation
AMS
microcytic anemia
basophilic stippling

7

What does PAS stain

Glycoprotein
polysaccharides of fungal wall, mucosubstances, basement membrane

8

What stains neutral lipid

Nile Red
Sudan Black

9

What is Alkaline Phosphatase an enzyme marker of

Osteoblasts
Staining can help show bone tumor

10

What kind of drug is spironolactone

Aldosterone antagonist

spironolactone inhibits reabsorption of sodium, water

11

Name 2 aldosterone inhibitors

Spironolactone
Eplerenone

12

What is a function of the gallbladder

reabsorb water from the bile

13

How does cystinuria present

cystine kidney stone in childhood

14

What are brown pigment stones?

ass. w/ biliary tract infection
pigment stones arise from unconj. bilirubin

15

What are black pigment stones?

occurs in setting of hemolytic anemia

16

What are some common findings in sarcoidosis

↑ Ace
Erythema nodosum
Arthralgia
Hilar Lymphadenopathy
Scattered non caseating granulomas in liver

17

Periportal hepatic fibrosis is a pathologic finding in

Chronic viral hepatitis

18

What do NK cells express on cell surface

CD16, CD56

19

Where do NK cells mature

TRICK! they do not need to mature like T cells. Present in athymic pts

20

Do APCS use NK cells

No. NK can activate without exposure to antigen.

21

What activates an NK cell

interferon gamma
IL 12

22

How do NKs kill

kill cells with ↓ MHC 1 (virus/tumor cell)

contain perforins and granzymes in cytoplasmic granules

Induce apoptosis

23

What is a a rare but serious side effect of antithyroid drugs

agranulocytosis

24

Which of the Men's shows a marfanoid habitus

Men Type 2 b.

B for Bunn

25

Which of the men's has 1o hyperparathyroid

Type 1
Hypercalcemia

26

Which of the men's has medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromo

2a and 2b
Tumor makes calcitonin

27

How can you increase the sound heard in a VSD

increase afterload, like a handgrip maneuver

vsd= low pitched holosystolic murmur

28

What is the prominent congenital long QT syndrome called

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen

long qt--> syncope and torsades de pointes

Also have neurosensory deafness

29

What is Losartan

Angiotensin II receptor blocker

competitvly binds angio 2 receptor, blocking angio 2, --> vascular smooth m relaxation--> decreased aldosterone

30

What do ANP and BNP do

act like NO
Increase cGMP--> relaxes smooth muscle--> vasodilation

31

This is the active form of vitamin d

, 25- dihydroxycholecalciferol

32

What is the insulin receptor made of

2 alpha and 2 beta units

alpha is extracellular- binds insulin
beta are internal and contain TK domain

33

What binds UA Ca and prevents kidney stone via facilating ca excretion

Citrate

Potassium citrate may be prescribed to help stones when diet isn't working

34

Define tumor lysis syndrome

↑ tumor cell turn over with chemo--> ↑ K, Phos, and Uric acid

35

Where is the lowest pH found in the nephron

distal tubules and collecting ducts

36

What is Hageman factor

factor 12
deficiency usually not a problem

37

WHat is DNA pol 1

in prokaryots

5'-->3' exonuc activity
Removes RNA primer

38

Where would an ulcer almost never be malignant

Duodenum

39

What increases the risk of myopathy in statin use

Fibrates, particularly gemfibrozil

b/c they impair hepatic clearence of statin

40

What is cholestyramine

bile acid sequestrant

41

What heart findings are typical in carcinoid syndrome

right sided endocardial fibrosis--> pulm valve stenosis/ restrictive cardiomyopathy

42

↑ plasma homocysteine has been linked to

Arterial and venous thrombosis and atherosclerosis

43

How long to see the very first changes in an MI

4 hours to see any change (coag necrosis)