HOME STRETCH! Flashcards Preview

UWorld journal > HOME STRETCH! > Flashcards

Flashcards in HOME STRETCH! Deck (62):
1

What supplements are needed for exclusive breast fed

Vit D

Iron for preterm and low weight

2

What are some tummy troubles people using opioids might have

sphincter of oddi spasm--> ↑ gallbladder pressure

3

What does ezetimibe do

↓ intestinal cholesterol absorption

4

What do fibrates do

activate PPAR-a and ↓ VLDL

Pretty much only drug that can lower triglycerides (fish oil does a little)

5

What drug ↓ Apolipoprotein B

fish oil

6

What does ↑ triglys do to pancreas

pancreas metabolizes it into free fatty acid --> toxic inflammatory effect--> pancreatitis

7

What type of adenoma is most likely to transform into malignant in colon

Villous adenoma can transform to malig more than tubular adenoma

8

What causes lynch syndrome

AD
nucleotide mismatch repair
MSH2, MLH1 genes --> MutS and MutL

9

Esophageal varices are from HTN where

Left gastric

10

Hemorrhoids are from HTN where

superior rectal

11

CAPUT MEDUSAE ARE FROM htn WHERE

PARAUMBILICAL

12

aldosterone producing adenoma

Conn syndrome

hypokalemia
HTN
metabolic alkalosis

13

outermost layer of adrenal makes

aldosterone

14

symptoms of conn's syndrome

electrolyte problem --> paresthesia, muscle weakness

15

is there fluid build up in conn

no because of aldosterone escape (↓ renin --> ↓ na, limits edema and na problem)

16

gastric ulcers extend into

submucosa

17

erosion penetrate to

muscularis mucosa

BUT they do not go through it

18

Vertigo--> NV

Rx?

H1 and M1 receptor are on vestibular system, use blocker

19

chemotherapy--> NV

Rx?

D2 receptor is in chemotrigger zone, use blocker

20

gastroenteritis--> NV

Rx?

5HT receptor on stomach. use blocker

ONDASETRON

21

name the non neoplastic polyps

hyperplastic polyp
inflammatory- UC and crohn's
submucosal
mucosal

22

what determines how bad a polyp is

degree of dysplasia

histologic pattern - villous is worse than tubular

size- bigger than 4 cm is especially bad

23

blocks stomach acid secretion
relieves reflux

Ranitidine

24

what is scopolamine

ach receptor antagonist

good for MOTION sickness (not all NV)

25

How do you treat central nausea

seen in acute migraine

d anatgs- metoclopramide, promethazine

usually not first line

26

These two diseases hurt after eating

Gastric ulcer- better w/ antacid

Chronic mesenteric ischemia- not better w/ antacid

27

How does leptin work

made by adipocytes
goes to hypothalamus
inhibits neuropeptide Y
Makes alpha-MSH

28

What does alpha-MSH do

increases satiety

29

What does neuropeptide Y do

give you apatite

30

What is a normal way to treat graves

radioiodine thyroid ablation

31

What food bypasses phosphofructokinase

fructose

this leads to the fact that fructose gets metabolized quicker

key enzymes= fructokinase, Aldolase B

32

How does the body excrete copper

secreted into bile--> stool

33

why do you see hemochromatosis more in med

Auto phlebotomy once a month

34

Whats a good stain for stool fat

sudan 3

35

When does barrett's have symptoms

when its already malignant

36

How does the Lac Operon turn on

↑ Lactose--> unbinds repressor/ operate site--> ↑ Transcription

37

What happens to the lac operon when ↓ glucose

↑ cAMP (just cuz) --> activate CAP--> ↑ transcription

38

If you compress that pit stalk why is there ↑ prolactin

D2 blocks upstream, but the block is compressed so there is no inhibition

39

What normally increases sectrin

secretin is released in response to stomach acid

secretin stimulates panc hco3 , and inhibits stomach gastrin

40

What is a unique test for zollinger ellison syndrome

admin secretin (normally should ↓ acid)

But in ZE--> secretin will ↑ Acid (gastrin)

41

How does rapid urease test work

gastric sample added to urea. ih pH indicator turns pink (basic) H pylori infection is likely

42

What is the portal triad

runs through the hepatoduodenal ligament

Hepatic Artery
Portal Vein
Common bile duct

43

What does vitamin e deficiency look like

ataxia
Hemolytic anemia
↓ proprioception/ vibratory

*results from oxidative stress

44

What's the major reasons for SCC of esophagus in USA

tobacco
alcohol

45

What is the biopsy finding in UC

inflammatory infiltrate involving mucosa and submucosa

46

What is missing in hirschsprung

meisner autonomic in submucosal

auerbach autonomic plexus in myenteric

47

How do you treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia

low doses of steroids to suppress ACTH and reduce adrenal cortex production

48

What does VIP do

stimulates intestinal water secretion

Conteracts gastrin

promotes bicarb from panc

49

What stimulates somatostatin

↓ pH stimulates it (from lots of places)

It inhibits pretty much everything

50

what makes the gall bladder contract

cholecystokinin

51

what does ricin inhibit

60 s

52

what do poisonous mushrooms inhibit

mRNA synthesis

s/s: NVD and liver damage

53

what liver biopsy finding would you see with hepatitis

hepatocyte swelling from atp depletion

hepatocyte apoptosis

pmn infiltration

54

What does cholestyramine do

bile acid sequestrant

55

What is the best gallstone prevention rx?

ursodiol
nontoxic bile acid
↑ bile acid, ↓ cholesterol secretion

56

how many calories for protein

4 cal/gram

57

how many calories for fat

9 cal/ gram

58

What GI cancer has signet rings

diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma, loss of e-cadherin

--> linitis plastica

59

Define crigler najjar

AR

genetic lack of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase

hyperbilirubinemia--> kernicterus--> death

60

How does carcinoid syndrome present

facial flushing
bronchospasm
diarrhea
hypotension

61

what is chvostek sign

hypocalcemia

facial twitch upon tapping

62

where is the portal vein

anterior to vena cava