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Flashcards in Heme/Onc Deck (47):
1

The individual subunits of hemaglobin are structurally similar to

Myoglobin

Individually they no longer show sigmoid binding

2

How do you treat cyanide poisoining

Nitrates

They create Methemoglobin like state

cyanide likes to bind ferric in methemoglobin and this saves the mitochondria from CN damag

3

What is Methemoglobin

Contains Ferric rather than ferrous iron

4

What do we usually bridge a pt with when starting warfrin

Heprin

Helps prevent necrosis

5

What drug blocks gp2b3a

Abciximab

6

What diease is messed up gp2b3a

Glanzmann thrombocytopenia

7

What accumulates in acute porphyria attack

aminolevulinate

porphobilinogen

8

O type blood mom

AB type baby

Is the baby in trouble?

Maybe, because Type O moms make IgG vs other blood (ab) and IgG will cross the placenta

AB moms only make IgM

9

HbF contains ____ instead of B globin

gama globin

10

The JAK2 mutation of polycythemia vera leads to what

makes hemopoetic stem cells more sensative to growth factors

11

What cancers are caused by Li Fraumeni

Sarcoma
Breast Cancer
Brain Tumor
Adrenal Tumor
Leukemia

p53 mutation

12

What cancers come with VHL

Hemangioblastoma
Clear cell renal carcinoma
Pheochromocytoma

13

What are the s/s of bladder cancer

Painless bloody urine
CA arises from transitional epithlium

14

Lets say you mistook B12 def, and said it was folate deficiency and therefor gave folate. What will happen

Treating b12 def with folate will make neurosymtoms worse

15

Translocation for Follicular Lymphoma

t (14:18)
Overexpression of BCL2
Inhibits apoptosis, promotes surviaval

16

2 key growth factors for tumor angiogenesis

VEGF

Fibroblast growth factor

17

What does anaplastic mean

the tumor cell has no resemblence to the tissue of origin

18

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is?

Antibody vs ADAMS13
VWF doesnt degrade
Microthrombi form
RBCs shear into shchistocytes

19

Where do the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways converge

Caspases

20

What is a reticulocyte

an immature RBC

21

Compare AML and CML

AML is most common acute leukemia for over 65
Increased WBC with lots of blasts

CML has elevated WBC, increase in precursor forms (ie myelacytes), and a decrease in Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase

22

T cells "live" in this part of the lymph node

Paracortex

23


Where do B cells "live" in the lymph node

Lymph Node cortex

24

Dermatomyositis may occure alone or as _______ (plus what s/s)

Dermatomyositis may be a paraneoplastic syndrome
s/s: proximal muscle weakness, inflamitroy skin findings

25


Which clotting factors does the liver make

2, 7, 9, 10
*these become activated by Vitamin K

26

What is wrong if is you have a bleeder with liver disease, you give Vitamin K, and nothing improves

if Prothrombin time does not correct with vit k, Factor 7 is likely deficient (has the shortest half life)

27

What is wrong in Polycythemia Vera

JAK2 Mutation- a non receptor cytoplasmic TK

28

What disease have a JAK2 mutation

Thrombocytopenia
Primary Mylofibrosis
PCV

29

How do you reverse Methotrextae poisoining

Folinic Acid (leukorvian)
Does not require the DHFR that methotrexate inhibits - it is already reduced

30

How is G6PD inheritied?

X linked
Causes hemolytic anemia under oxidative stress

31

What is the most common brain cancer in children

Pilocytic Astrocytoma (astrocyte- cystic and soild) > Meduloblastoma (solid and malignant) > Ependymoma (ventricle lining)

32

This drug is a good "antagonist" to supress pretty much any excess hormone

Octerotide- Somatostain anaolog- encourages somatostaisis

33

What part of the bone has decresed density in osteomalacia

Osteoid

34

Abnormal formation of lamellar bone

Paget Disease of bone

35

What direction does DNA replication occure

5'--> 3'

36

What are the symptoms of Multiple Myeloma

Bone pain
Fatigue
Anemia
Kidney Disease
Hypercalcemia

37

What does mutiple Myeloma make a lot of


Large amounts of light chains (like IgG) that like to deposit in tissue

38

What is the most common primary brain tumor of adults

Glioblastoma Multiforme
Very malig, poor prognosis
Lots of necrosis and hemmorhage

39

What are the clasical lab findings of mutiple mylemoa

Roulaeux Formation
Bence Jones protein in urine

40

What does the RB protein do


Tumor Supresor
Keeps G1--> S checkpoint = Activated RB stops the progression
Phosphorylated RB allows Cell through the checkpoint

41

This disease is a triad of eczema, thrombocytopenia, and combo B/T cell deficiency

Wiscot Aldrich
* Encapsulated infections happen frequently

42

What are the s/s of lead poisoining

BASOPHILIC STIPPLING
AB PAIN
weakness
constipation

43

Pancytopenia with acellular bone marrow with tons of fat is likely what?

Aplastic Anemia
Usually Aquired- T cell vs progenitors

44

Who gets warfrin indused skin necrosis

People who have an underlying Protein C or Protein S deficincy

45

What chemo causes hemorrhagic cyctitis and how do you prevent that outcome

Cyclophosfomide= chemo
Mensa= Binds toxic metabolites

46

What does ATRA treat

Atra= Vit A = Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia, a type of AML

47

What random drug increases factor 7 and VWF

Desmopressin