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Flashcards in Neuro Never Ends Deck (55):
1

Describe the histology/stuff of pilocytic astrocytoma

Cystic tumor of cerebellum
Spindle Cells
Rosenthal Fibers
Granular eosinophilic bodies
*Kids

2

Describe the histology/stuff glioblastoma multiforme

Deep structures
Crosses midline- butterfly
Pleomorphic astrocytes
*Necrosis/ microvasculature

3

Describe the histology/stuff medulloblastoma

Primitive Neuroectoderm
Homer Wright rosettes
Small round blue cells
*Kids, posterior fossa
*Bad prognosis

4

Describe the histology/stuff ependymoma

4th ventricle
kids
Pseudorosettes

5

Describe the histology/stuff neuroblastoma

N-Myc
Extra Cranial
Kids

UA
homovanillic acid
and/or
vanillymandelic acid

6

What is synaptophysin

Neuroendocrine or neuroectoderm cells

7

Neoplasms of _____ origin stain + for GFAP

Glial origin= GFAP

Astrocytoma
Ependymoma
Oligodroglioma

8

What are all the DSM 5 features of major depressive disorder

>2 weeks

Need 5 or more of

*Depressed mood
*Loss of interest
Change in appetite/weight
Sleep problems
Psychomotor retardation/agitation
Low energy
Poor concentration
Worthlessness/ guilt
SI

9

Crescent shaped bleed
Gradual Onset of s/s

Subdural hematoma

10

This describes the congenital absence of Gyri

Lissencephaly

11

Normal CSF content
Younge obese women
↑ ICP

Pseudotumor cerebri

12

What are the characteristics of cocaine/ "upper" withdrawal

Depression
Fatigue
Hypersomnia
Hyperphagia
Vivid Dreams

13

Hypoplasia/absence of cerebellar vermis

Dandy walker malformation
Cystic dilation of 4th ventricle
non communicating hydrocephalus

14

Strongest risk for SI

#1- previous SI attempt

also, 90% have diagnosable psych illness at time of death by SI

15

What kind of drug is Thiopental

Barb
↑ Duration of Cl channel / Gaba

Has rapid onset/ rapid recovery (from redistribution) good for induction ANA, usually not maintenance

16

How many words should a kid say at 2 years old

50-200

17

Which Cranial Nerves exit at midbrain

3, 4

18

Which cranial nerves exit at Pons

5-8

19

Which CN exit at medulla

9, 10, 12

20

Which CN exits at spine

CN 11

21

Which CN exits the dorsal brain stem

CN 4 leaves the stem dorsally

22

Which CN exits directly out of middle of pons

Trigeminal

23

What is the major problem for patients recovering from subarachnoid hemorrhage

Vasospasm 4- 12 days after bleed is problematic

major cause of morbidity and mortality

24

How do you treat SAH vasospasm

Ca Channel Blocker - Nimodipine

25

Which antipsychotics has the most anti-cholinergic effects

Low potency FGAs

26

What does a tricyclic overdose look like

Anticholinergic

particularly amitriptyline

27

What characterizes borderline personality

unstable relationships
mood lability
impulsive
SI in context of interpersonal crisis

28

How does Ketamine work

blocks NMDA receptors

29

What receptor does PCP work on

NMDA antagonist

30

Symptoms of temporal arteritis

giant cell vasculitis
HA--> Blindness
Jaw Claudication
Polymyalgia rheumatica

31

What do you call the inflammation of polymyositis

Endomysial

32

What do you call the inflammation of Guillain Barre

Endoneural

33

The _____ is the measure of potency for an inhaled anesthetic

Minimum Alveolar concentration

34

What is MAC

min alveolar concentration

concentration when ana renders 50% of patients unresponsive

35

What are the 2 presentations of TMJ and why

muscle of mastication problem

otologic problem

mandibular trigeminal supplies jaw muscle and tensor tympani

36

What are the 3 ways urination is controlled

Sacral MIcturition center- S2-S4- bladder contraction

Pontine Micturition center- coordinates voluntary voiding

Cerebral cortex- can inhibit micturition center

37

What cell type is involved in CSF absorbtion

Arachnoid granules

38

Microscopy of creutzfeldt Jakob

multiple vacolues b/t neurons
Abnoral prion protein
rapid dementia and jerks

39

How does topical capsaicin work

defunctionalization of affernt pain fibers via ↑ TRPV1 channels, ↑ Ca--> dysfx of nociceptive fibers

* depletion of substance p

40

Endorphin and dynorphins are

endogenous opiod peptides- activate mu

41

How does Cocain work

indirect sympathomimetic, inhibits reuptake of norepi, da, and 5ht

42

What is the staining for schwannomas

s-100

43

What brain tumor has psammoma bodies

Meningiomas

44

What is an optic glioma made of

astrocytes with rosenthal fibers

45

This treats refractory schizophrenia

clozapine
s/s= agranulocytosis

46

Compare binge eating and bulimia

binge eating: binges, but does not restrict/purge

bulimia: binges then restricts

47

According to world, what is the difference b/t anorexia and bulimia

Weight
Anorexics are thin
bulimics are normal/overweight

48

What is the only recreational drug you should acs. w/ nystagmus

PCP

49

Minors wanting abortion

2/3 states require parental consent for abortion
1/3 require parental notification

50

This is the most common cause of calcium kidney stone

Idiopathic hypercalciuria

(serum is normocalcemia)

51

Who will have a positive lepromin skin test

tuberculoid leprosy has + skin test due to Cd4 Th1 response

Lepromatous leprosy has a weak th1 response, and - skin test

52

Which of these drugs can cross the BBB

Physostigmine
Neostigmine
Edrophonium

Physostigmine Penetrates the BBB

NEostimine does Not

These are all anti-chole-esterase--> ↑ AcH

53

What causes 80% of malignancy hypercalcemia

PTHrP --> activates PTH receptor --> excessive bone resorbtion--> ↑ Ca

lots of cancers can do this, very rare to elevate PTH itself in cancer

54

What is a common blood transfusion problem in IgA def

if you are IgA def, you will attack IgA in donor blood

55

What is the presentation of hypercalcemia

AMS
muscle weakness
constipation
polyuria/polydipsia
dehydration