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Flashcards in Prometric Practice Deck (61):
1

↑ megakaryocytes on biopsy

Immune Thrombocytopenia

2

Immune thrombocytopenia antibody

Anti-GpIIb/IIIa antibodies

splenic macrophage consumption of
platelet‑antibody complex. Commonly due to viral illness.

3

Inhibition or deficiency of ADAMTS 13

ADAMTS =vWF metalloprotease

Thrombotic
thrombocytopenic
purpura

 platelet aggregation and thrombosis.

4

ADH is the same as

Vasopressin

Translocates an aquaporin

5

rare; characterized by widespread kidney damage due to granulomatous tissue containing foamy macrophages

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

Part of chronic pyelo

6

what is gemfibrozil

a fibrate

7

what is a side effect of fibbrates

↓ bile acid syntheisis--> gallstones

8

What are the side effects of statins

hepatic dysfunction
myopathy

9

What is a VIPoma

pancreatic islet tumor w/ ↑ VIP

increases stool Cl loss (which draws in h2o and more electrolytes)

Inhibits gastrin

10

x rashy ows air in biliary tree

gallstone ileus may be present. Gallstone obstructs ileocecal valve

11

What kind of gene is APC

tumor supressor

12

What does kras do

protooncogene. can lead to unregulated proliferation

13

what does a dcc mutation do

avoidance of apoptosis

14

What is wrong in essential fructosuria

fructokinase deficiency

benign because hexokinase can help you out still

15

what is wrong in hereditary fructose intolerance

↓ aldose b

toxic accumulation of fructose- 1 - phosphate

life threatening

16

What is beta oxidation of fat

breaking down fatty acid

17

where does beta oxidation of fat occur

mitochondria

18

what enzyme mediates b-oxidation of fat

carnitine acetyltransferase

19

what regulates the b-oxidation of fat

malonyl coa

20

What is the bioavailability of IV drugs

it is 100%

oral is usually never 100%

therefor use IV as the standard to compare oral to

21

where is the negative feedback for cortisol

hypothalamus and pit

feeds back to both

22

what does estrogen therapy do to thyroid

↑ thyroid binding hormone

but feedback still works

therefor normal levels of free T4

23

what are the two watershed areas of the colon

splenic flexure (SMA, IMA)
rectosigmoid junction (sigmoid and superior rectal)

24

what enzyme cleaves bad bases in dna repair

glycosylase

cleaves altered base

25

what does endonuclease do

cleaves the 5' bad site

26

what does lyase do

cleaves the 3' end of bad site

27

what seals the nick in dna repair

ligase

28

what is hyperestrinism/ when do you see it

liver chirrosis
too much estrogen

causes: Boobs, spider angiomata, palmar erythema
↓ pubic hair, ↓ tests

29

what does a carcinoid tumor look like on histology

small blue cells

30

what does a hamartoma look like on histology (from colon)

disorganized glands, smooth muscle, connective tissue

seen in PJ and juvenile polyp

s/s: bleeding/ intussusception

31

what are the symptoms of a hyperplastic polyp

none usually
benign
well differentiated

32

describe primary biliary cirrhosis

autoimmune- lymph infiltrate and granuloma

destruction of bile ducts

anti- mitochondria ab, ↑ IgM

33

do klinefelter's have sperm

no- none

47 xxy

34

what is the hormone panel like in klinefelter

↑ FSH and LH

↓ testosterone

has destruction of seminiferous tubes

35

UC or crohn's has granulomas

crohn's has non caseating granulomas

36

describe crohn's

cobblestone mucosa
transmural inflammation
string sign

37

why is aflatoxin bad

causes p53 mutation
leads to hepatocellular carcinoma

38

in gluconeogenisis, the first step is pyruvate + co2 --> oxaloacetate

what enzyme does this, and what regulates the enzyme

pyruvate carboxylase does it

acetyl - coa (1st step into TCA) regulates it

39

what is the central step in pancreatic necrosis

trypsinogen--> trypsin

trypsin can activate other zymogens--> autodigestion

40

what liver marker indicates alcoholism

AST>>ALT

(>2 AST:ALT)

41

Fun question, describe rectal lymph drainage

proximal to dentate line- int illiac

distal to dentate line- inguinal

42

why do mallory weiss tears happen

increased ab pressure from retching, vomiting, and abdominal straining

43

what is diphenoxylate

opiod anti-diarrheal

slows motility

atropine added in to avoid abuse

dolphin fountain

44

what is the most important risk factor for pancreatic cancer

smoking

45

s/s of pancreatic cancer

large non tender gallbladder

painless obstructive jaundice

pruritus, dark urine, pale stool

46

what is histology of Reye syndrome

microvesicular steatosis

↓ mitochondria and glycogen depletion

no necrosis or inflammation

47

alcohol and gallstones cause pancreatitis. what is a third more rare (20%) reason

try-glys over 1000 mg/dL

48

what does ammonia do to the brain

depletes a-ketoglutarate--> inhibits kreb

accumulation of glutamine--> astrocyte swelling and dysfunction

49

what is alpha ketoglutarate involved in

it is an intermediate in krebs and an intermediate in the ammonia transport alanine/glutamate cycle

50

what is the most common liver tumor (benign)

cavernous hemangioma

blood filled vascular space

biopsy --> fatal bleeding so not needed

51

what tumor is acs. w/ OCPs

hepatic adenoma

52

what the FUCK is sertaline

SERrtaline is an SSRI

SER=SSRI

53

what supplies majority blood supply to femoral neck

MEDIAL is MAJORITY of femoral neck

54

if you cant metabolize fructose, you also cant metabolize?

Sucrose

55

what is wrong in pku

phe--//--> tyrosine

due to ↓ phenylalanine hydroxylase

s/s: sz, retardation, pale

56

what supposedly good cholesterol drug raises tri glys as s/e

cholestyramine

57

what r the insulin independent body parts

Kidney
Intestine
Liver
Brain
RBCs

58

what is the receptor for insulin glucose uptake

GLUT 4

59

receptors for insulin independent glucose uptake

GLUT 1, 2, 3, 5

60

what is a rare reason to have PKU

tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency (a cofactor in the same path)

2% of PKU

UNIQUE: has increased prolactin

61

whats downstream in the PKU pathway

dopa
dopamine
norepi
epi