Pulm 2.0 Flashcards Preview

UWorld journal > Pulm 2.0 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulm 2.0 Deck (48):
1

Lung CA
most common

Adenocarcinoma

2

Lung CA
Central, Necrosis and cavitation

Squamous cell carcinoma

3

Lung CA
Peripheral
Gynecomastia

Large Cell

4

Coin Lesion
hyaline cartilage, connective tissue, smooth muscle, fat

Hamartoma

5

What must you have to ddx sarcoidosis

lung biopsy w/ non-caseating granuloma

6

Baby is born with no surfactant and given o2 as rx. Complications?

o2 therapy in baby--> retinal damage--> blindness

likely mediated by VEGF

*Major cause of blindness in developed world

7

In V/Q what does v and q mean

v= ventilation

q= blood flow

8

Describe lung zone 1 pressures

apex

alveolar> arterial> venous

9

Describe zone 3 pressures

arterial> venous> alveolar

10

Describe lung zone 2 pressure

arterial> alveolar> venous

11

when airway pressure is 0 you are in a resting state. What is the intrapleural pressure

-5 cm H20

12

How can pleura pull air into the lung

resting pleural presure= -5

inspiration= -7.5

-7.5 creates a negative alveolar pressure that draws air into the lung

13

A lot of stuff causes allergic asthma, but rx vs receptor only works for these two things

LTC4, LTD4, LTE4

AcH

14

Do histamine antags help in asthma

No

15

Describe the irritation and changes smoking does to lungs

Normal: pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells

Smoking: columnar is replaced by squamous

16

What does osmium tetroxide do

Stains fat black

17

What stains hemosiderin macs

prussian blue shows iron

18

What strains platelets purple

write stain

19

Who has increased FEV1/FVC

restrictive disease

20

Who has decreased FEV1/FVC

obstructive disease

21

Why is systemic partial pressure o2 less than alveolar partial pressure

because bronchial deoxygenated blood drains into the oxygenated pulm vein

22

Where is there always a left shift in oxy curve

Lungs shift left

↓ H, 2,3 DPG, and Temp

23

What causes a right shift oxy heme curve

↑ H, 2,3- DPG, and temp

24

What can attract PMNs

Leukotriene B4 (and some precursor)
C5a
Il-8

25

What 3 cytokines cause systemic inflammation

Il-1, IL-6, TNF-a

26

What does bradykinin do

Vasodilation
Contracts smooth muscle
mediates pain
↑ Permeability

27

Where is epo made

peritubular cells of kidneys

28

What does platelet- activating factor do

It does a lot...

vasoconstriction
bronchoconstriction
platelet stimulation
enhanced leukocyte adhesion
chemotaxis
phagocytosis
degranulation

29

What makes ESR happen

high levels of freely circulating fibrinogen

30

What is SVC syndrome

a mass compresses the SVC and causes facial swelling and upper extremity issues

31

What does second hand smoke do to babies

low birth weight
asthma
middle ear syndrome
SIDS

32

What is characteristic of Primary TB

Ghon complex and ipsilateral hilar adenopathy

33

What causes tracheal deviation TOWARD the lesion

Lung Collapse - atelectasis

ex: bronchus obstruction--> obstructive atelectasis--> trachea PULLED in

34

What causes tracheal deviation away from lesion

Tension pneumothorax (air cannot exit)
excess air/fluid PUSHES trachea

35

What is a pleural effusion

excess fluid in pleural layers

36

What is a pneumothorax

Air in pleural space

37

Meconium plug obstructing the intestine preventing the passage of stool

meconium ileus

Seen in CF

38

What part of the type 2 pneumocyte makes surfactant

lamellar bodies

39

what are the most common malignancy from asbestos

#1- most common: bronchogenic carcinoma

2- mesothelioma

40

How do you measure the severity of bronchitis

reid index-measurement of mucus enlargement

ratio = mucus glands / (epithelial + mucus + ct)

normal is 40%

does not include thickness of cartilage

41

What causes TB caseous necrosis

macs, giant cells, and CD4 t lymph aggregate--> granulomatous caseous necrosis

WBC activation--> collateral tissue damage--> cavitary

42

Why does pancreatitis --> ARDS

pancreatitis has large amount of inflammatory cytokines and panc enzymes in circulation

PMNs invade lungs--> leaky alveoli and injury

pancreatitis is MAJOR risk factor for ARDS

43

what will small cell lung CA stain for

SCC has neuroendocrine differentiation

stains: Chromogranin, synaptophysin, enolase

44

What is hypersensitivity pneumonitis

inhalation of organic material

diffuse nodular infiltrates

45

What is responsible for the green color of puss

myeloperoxidase of PMNs

46

what does RA typically do to the lungs

tends to cause a idiopathic interstitial pneumonia like interstitial lung disease- restrictive

47

What is anergy

failure to generate a response with t cells

48

Why does it matter that ACTH and opioids are derived from the same thing

supports theory that stress and opioid axis are related