Immunology, Neuro, and Renal Day Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunology, Neuro, and Renal Day Deck (59):
1

What inervates the diaphragm

C3- C5 keeps the diagphragm alive

2

What does the corticospinal tract carry

Motor stuff

3

What nerve is injured in foot drop

Common peroneal

weak dorsiflexion and eversion and steppage gait

Sensory loss over lateral leg and dorsum of foot

4

What nerve damage results in wrist drop

Radial ~c7

5

The "M" of the brachial plexus is

Upper

Musculocutaneous

Median

Ulnar

lower

6

What cute nerve split is directly above the brachial plexus M

The ~C7 cord splits into axillary and radial

7

What are the 2 classes of dopamine agonists

Ergot- bromocriptine

Non-ergot- Pramipexole, ropinirole

Both directly stimulate Da receptors

8

How does Phenoytoin work and what is the major side effect

Blocks Voltage gated Na channels- treats SZ

s/e: gingival hyperplasia from ↑ platelet derived growth factor--> ↑ Macs--> proliferation of gums

other s/e: CNS stuff, ataxia and nystagmus

9

What is the precursor AA for serotonin

Tryptophan

10

How do you treat SSRI overdose

Cycproheptadine - an antihistamine and anti- 5ht

11

What is the treatment for benzo overdose

Flumazenil

12

What is parkinsons deep brain stimulation targeted against

Basil Ganglia type stuff

exactly: globul palidus internus
Subthalmic nucleus

13

Why does deep brain stimulation at globus palidus internus or subthalmic nucleaus help

basically the Da movement pathways are directed here

GPe--> STN--> GPi--> thalmus--> cortex--> movement

14

This seizure is no LOC + brief jerking movements

Myoclonic

rx: broad spectrum, is valproic acid

15

This SZ has LOC and diffuse muscle contraction

Tonic Clonic

rx: broad spectrum, ie Valporic acid

16

This SZ has a sorta LOC (blank stare) with NO postictal state

Absence

rx: ethosuximide

17

What is / When do you use a narrow spectrum SZ drug

Simple or complex SZ

Rx: Phenytoin, phenobarb, Gabapentin, etc

18

Compare simple and complex SZ

Both: Focal

simple: NO LOC

Complex: HAS LOC

19

What CNS tumor is asc. w/ EBV

Primary CNS Lymphoma
Aids defining illness

20

What is cerebral amyloid angiopathy like

-Most common reason for spontaneous hemorrhage seen in elderly

- usually seen in occipital and parietal lobe

21

What is a aneurysm rupture due to HTN involving deep brain structures

Charcot Bouchard aneurysm

Usually involves the basil ganglia

22

This is the most common cause of brain hemorrhage in children

Brain AVM

23

What is the prefered combo therapy for parkinson's

BALSA

Bromocriptine or Pramipexole
Amantadine (↑ Da)
Levodopa(with Carbidopa)
Selegiline- COMT inhibitor
Antimuscarinic

24

How does selegiline work and what do we use it for

Inhibits MAO type B, helps in Parkinsons

25

How does Amantadine work

invented vs flu
BUT

HAs dopaminergic activity, and anticholinergic therefore helps in parkinson's

26

What is the most common reason for the hook "worst headache of my life"

Worst HA of life= Subarachnoid

Most common cause of subarachnoid= Saccular (berry) aneurysm

Could also be an AVM

27

Where do saccular (berry) aneurysms tend to occur and who usually has them

In the circle of willis

seen often in ehlos danlos and AD-PCKD

28

What does CSF look like in subarachnoid hemorrhage

Xanthochromia- aka yellowish

29

Stroking out this area will lead to wild involuntary large amplitude movements

Subthalamic nuc (part of basil ganglia)

often seen in setting of lacunar stroke from chronic DM and HTN

30

How does ethosuximide work

blocks T type Ca channel

31

What do T type Ca channels do

trigger rhythmic pulsed discharges in thalamic neurons

32

How does a meningioma present

Often asympt, may have Sz
Forms psammoma body on histology

33

What nerve mediates larynx muscles

Vagus

34

What mediates taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue

Chorda tympani of facial
*also mediates saliva

35

Which Chiari malformation is the most common

Type 1- benign and more common. s/s: ataxia, dizzy

Type 2- severe. usually has myelomeningocele and noncommunicating hydrocephalus

36

What generally causes Vertigo

dysfx in the vestibular system

ex: inner ear

37

What nerves are in the cavernous sinus

CN 3- 6
(minus V3)

Also some internal caratoid

38

This is a vascular malformation in the brain that has an increased risk for intracerebral hemorrhage

Cavernous hemangioma
pts often have sz as well

39

How does atropine work

reversible cholinergic antagonist selective for M

40

How do you reverse atropine

Cholinesterase inhibitor ex: physostigmine

(b/c atropine is reversible anti-M, just load them up with Ach to out compete and let M work again)

41

What are the primary childhood brain cancers

#1- Pilocytic
# 2- Medulblastoma
#3- Ependymoma

cranipharyngioma, pinealoma

42

This disease will show UMN and LMN lesions

ALS

loss of anterior horn
Demylination of lateral corticospinal tract

43

Paralysis of the _______ m (innervated by 7) leads to hyperacusis

Stapedius M on middle ear (attaches to stapes)

hyperacusis: increased sensitivity to sound

44

Myotonic dystrophy is

Trinuc repeat of CTG

baldness
testicle atrophy
cataracts
muscle dystrophy
arrhythmias

45

What neurotransmitter is missing in huntington

GABA

46

How do you treat neuromalignant syndrome

Dantrolene

47

Where is most water in kidney absorbed regardless of anything (hydration, etc)

Proximal tube- passive water absorption

48

What parts of the kidney never absorb water

Ascending loop of henle
Early DCT

49

Why do we conjugate polysaccharide vaccines

Polysac alone= b cell response

Polysach + protein conjugate= B and T cell (has memory, lasts longer)

50

What type of cell is a juxtaglomerular cell

A modified smooth muscle cell with renin containing zymogen granules

51

How does ↑ aldosterone present

Hypertension
Muscle Weakness
Hypokalemia

52

What are the 3 ways to treat CMV

Gancyclovir
Foscarnet
Cidofovir

53

This anti CMV drug is a pyrophosphate analog

Foscarnet

54

What are the side effects of foscarnet

Nephrotoxicity
electrolyte abnormalities
↑ or ↓ of Ca and Phos
hypokalemia
hypomagnesemia

55

If you break your humorous, and damage the radial nerve, what artery did you also hurt

Deep Brachial

Runs with the radial

56

What choromosome is messed up in wilms tumors

11

57

What chromo is messed up in RB

13

58

What chromo is messed up in Nf-1

17

59

Where is c-myc

chrmo 8