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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (72):
1

What CSF markers are low in narcolepsy

Low levels of hypocretin (orexin)

Orexin promotes wakefulness and inhibits rem in lateral hypothalamus

2

What do you call being tired all the time that is not explained by a sleep disorder

Hypersomance

Do not feel refreshed after a nap

3

Compare methadone to heroine

Methodone has a longer half life

4

Give an example of stimulus control therapy for insomnia

Leave bedroom if but asleep in 20 minutes

Only go to bed when actually tired

5

What is a scomotoma

Any visual field defect surrounded by unimpaired vision

Central- macula lesion

6

Transcetion of contralateral optic tract would lead to what vision

Homonymous hemianposia

Loss of vision in the same side on both eyes

7

What does the locus ceruleus house

Norepinephrine secreting neurons

8

What does the nucleaus basalis of meynert house

Cholenergic neurons

(This is damaged in Alzheimer's)

9

Where are serotonin releasing neurons contained

Ralphi nuclei

10

What is Zellweger syndrome

Peroxisomal disease

Infant cannot form mylin

11

Symptoms of zelwegger

Aka no mylin

Hypotonia
Sz
Heptomegally

Death in months

12

What disease is treated by restricting cholophil

Refsum

Defect in peroxisome

13

Nerve control of eyes

SO4 LR6

All others are tree

14

Double vision when looking down

Vertical diplopoa, Eye deviating upward


Trochlear damage

15

Eye deviates medially, horizontal diplopia

Abducens lesion

16

What kind of drug is a triptan

Post snap Serotonin receptor stimulator

Rx for migraine

17

What kind of action does a tricyclic have

Strong anticholenergic


18

What makes a pupil get smaller

Oculomotor nerve

19

What is the prefered treatment for restless leg syndrome

Dopamine agonist

20

Restless leg syndrome may be asc with this heme finding

Iron deficiency anemia

21

This is the measure of how far along an axon an electrical signal might propogate

Length constant

22

How does mylination affect neuron capcitence

Mylein decreases capacitance

23

Baby with seizures, intellectual disability, and no color in substantia niagra

PKU

phenylalanine deficiency

24

What do all eye nerves travel through

Superior orbital fissure

25

Adding carbidopa to levodopa changes what?

Carbidopa increases levidopa getting to the brain

Decreases periferal side effects (NV hypotension)

Increases central side effects (agitation)

26

How do you treat Wilson's disease

D penicillamine chelation

27

Symptoms of wilsons

AR ATP7B mutation

Copper accumulates in eye liver brain

s/s Parkinsonisn, kayser fleicher rings

28

Lab findings in wilsons

Elevated transaminase

Low serum ceruloplasmin

29

How does tetrodotoxin work?

From puffer fish

Inactivates nerve na channels

No upstroke in action potential

30

PKU patients are likely to be low in what neurotransmitter

Serotonin

They need low phenyl diet and BH4 (makes 5ht) as treatment

31

Drug of choice for absence seizures

Ethosuximide

Sodium valproate

32

Why is wrong in lych nyne


deficiency of the enzyme

hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)

33

What is an organophosphate

A cholenesterase inhibitor

Leads to cholinergic over stimulation

34

Symptoms of organophosphate poisoning

Salvation

Tear eyes

Bradycardia

Bronchospasam

35

This urea cycle disorder shows no or little increase in ammonia

Arginase deficiency

S/s spacity
Chorea

Rx: low protein

36

This drug will precipitate an opioid with drawl and it is not narcan

Buprenorphine
Partial opioid agonist

Acts as an antagonist when I. The presence of other opioids

37

What does a PCA stroke produce (symtoms)

Contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing

Thalamus may be involved leading to contralateral parastheisias


Other cortical s/s may be seen

38

What artery helps supply the

optic tract
Lateral geniculate
Hippocampus
Amydiala

Anterior choroidal artery

39

Destruction of this leads to hyperphagia

Ventromedial

40

Destruction if this leads to anaorexia

Lateral nucleaus

41

Destruction leads to hyperthermia

Anterior nuc

42

Destruction leads to hypothermia

Posterior nuc

43

New acronym to remeber lateral vs Ventromedial destruction

Destruction

Lateral makes you lean

Medial makes more

44

EXACTLY how does a benzo work

Increases FREQUENCY of cl channel for GABA

45

What do barbs do to nerves

Increase duration of cl opening for GABA

46

How does phenytoin work

Inhibits high frequency firing of sodium channels

47

What is the edrophonuum test for

Myasthenia gravis

48

You know someone has m gravis but still has symtoms

You administer edrophonuim

Why?

Edrophonuim (when you already know there is m gravis)

Helps: when patient needs a HIGHER med dose

Does nothing: the patient is in cholinergic crisis, needs LESS meds

49

A craniopharingioma derives from

Ranthky pouch - precursor to ant pit

50

What does a craniopharingioma look like

Calcified cyst with cholesterol crystals

Usually supper seller

Often in kids

51

Where will an acoustic neuroma arise from (usually)

Cerebellopontine angle where 8th nerve comes off of

52

Vitamin b1 deficiency causes

Wernicke

53

Symptoms of wernike

Damage to mammillary bodies

Horizontal nystagmus

54

What can make wernike way worse

Glucose infusion

B1 is cofactor in glucose metabolism, do giving glu with b1 will make you worse

55

What are estazolam and triazolam

Benzos

56

What is prolly most common reason for cognitive decline in HIV

HIV dementia

Micro glial nodules

57

What is a middle ear cholestoma

a collection of SQUAMOUS CELL DEBRIS
form a mass behind membrane

cause a conduction hearing loss

58

Is a cholestoma made from cholesterol

NO

Cholestoma is squamous cell debris build up in middle ear

Cholesterol granulaomas can form, but are rare and apear green/black

59

Involuntary movements after chronic use of antipsychotics
lip smaking, chorea

Tardive dyskinesia

60

Fever, rigidity, AMS, and autonomic instability after antipsychotics

Neuoeptic malgnant syndrome

61

sudden onset sustained mucsle contractions with antipsycotics

Extrapyramidal side effect (EPS)
Acute dystonic rxn

62

Subjective restlessness and inablity to sit still with antipsycotics

Akathisia
EPS

63

Tremor, ridgidity, bradykinesia, masked face with antipsycotic

EPS
Drug induced parkinsons

64

This problem can arise when CSF is not reabsorbed well

communicating hydrocephalus

65

This is when csf is not being absorbed well, so reflexively there is less csf made. Intercranial pressure will be normal

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

66

This has a normal ISP, the corticals atrophy, and the ventricles are dilated

Hydrocephalus ex vacuo

67

This is a hydrocephulus that is not well understood but happens morewith obesity

Pseudotumor cerebri

68

The changes in a neural cell body after an axon is severed is called

axonal reaction- changes reflect ↑ protein synth for repair

shows cellular edema, displacd nucleus, and dispersed nissle substance

69

Is Korsakoff syndrome reversible with thiamine

NO
The memory problems are forever

However, eye stuff, ataxia, and confusion can be reversed

70

What Da pathway controls prolactin secretion

Tuberoinfundibular

diseased in hyperprolactinemia

71

What Da pathway regulates behavior

Mesolimbic-mesocortical

diseased in schizophrenia

72

What Da pathway regulates voluntary movement

Nigrostriatal

diseased in parkinson's