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Flashcards in Review Mis Mash Deck (34):
1

What is the most common cause of fetal hydronephrosis

Inadequate canalization of the ureteropelvic junction (aka urter doesnt connect to the kidney)

2

When is graft vs host usually seen

bone marrow transplant

3

After you hook up a new kidney, what is wrong if it instantly molts and makes no urine

Hyperacute rejection- a type 2 hypersensitivity

The host has preformed anti-donor antibodies

4

How long do symptoms need to be to call something PTSD

1 month or more

5

What is Aldose B Deficiency

hereditary fructose intolerance

6

What is the FAS receptor

Initiates extrinsic apoptosis

FAS mutation may prevent apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes --> ↑ autoimmune disorders

7

What does prolonged untreated obstructive sleep apnea lead to

Pulm Htn

8

What is wrong in the delta-F508 mutation

CF

3 base pair deletion --> shunts protein to the proteasome

Absence of apical protein on membrane

9

General Sensation of the tongue

anterior 2/3= mandibular branch of trigeminal

Gustatory (taste buds) = chorda tympani of facial

10

What is a TATA box

promoter region that binds transcription factors

Usually about 25 base pairs upstream from start codon

11

What makes a gap junction

Connexin

gap junctions are good for intercellular communication

ex: myometritail excitablity to give birth is mediated via gap junction

12

What makes a tight junction

Claudin

Serves as a barriers

13

What do cadherins make

Adherin junction, which is a cellular anchor

14

What are 3 examples of cellular anchors

Cadherin stuff:
Adherin junction
Desmosome

Integrin stuff:
Hemidesmosome

15

When you are talking about an embryo, what is a disruption

a normal tissue that is broken down incorrectly, like amniotic band syndrome

16

When talking about a fetus, what is a deformity

fetal structure abnormality that resulted from external mechanical force

17

When talking about a fetus, what is a malformation

a primary defect in cells/tissue --> downstream anomalie

ex: holoprosencehaly

18

what pathways use JAK/STAT

Colony stimulating factor
Prolactin
Growth hormone
Cytokines
these use a TK and a JAK/STAT

19

What is a phenotypic mixing

coinfection with 2 virusus

One of the "normal" viruses steals the other virusus nucleocapsid --> becomes kinda different

BUT the baby viruses will revert back to "normal" because the genetics never changed

20

What is the acronym for retroperitoneal organs

SAD PUCKER

Supra renal gland (aka adrenal)
Aorta and Vena Cava
Duodenum

Pancreas
Uterus and bladder
Colon (acending/descending)
Kidney
Esphogus
Recutm

21

How is fat/ lipid absorbed

Pancreatic enzymes chew it up in duodenum

Bile salts emulsify it

Absorption happens in jejunum

22

What is nissle substance

rough ER of a neuron

23

This drug helps in chrons/UC
inhibits cytokines, PG, and leukotrienes

Sulfazine:5-aminosalicylates

24

What does sirolimus do

binds Fk- 506
Inhibits mTOR

Blocks IL 2

Prevents cell cycle and lymph production

s (2) I r (ir looks like IL) = blocks il2

25

This is a holostolic murmur that increase with intensity during inspiration

-- S1- IIIIIIIII- S2------

Tricuspid regurg

26

These secret copious amount of alkaline into the duodnum

Brunner gland

Other would be pancreatic duct secretions

27

What is the nerve for achillies reflex

S1

28

what is the nerve for patellar reflex

L4

29

What do hox box genes do

Cranial caudal formation
Key for segmental organization

30

What kind of drug is bupropion

Nor-epi/Da reuptake inhibitor

31

What drug treates both seizures and mood disorder

Valporate

Good in bipolar

32

How does valporate work

blocks voltage gated sodium channels
enhances gaba

33

What can trigger chronic lithium toxicity

Thiazides
Diuretics
ACE inhibitors
NSAIDs

Lithium has a very narrow window

34

What are the stop codons

UAA
UAG
UGA