GET DOWN TO BUISNESS Flashcards Preview

UWorld journal > GET DOWN TO BUISNESS > Flashcards

Flashcards in GET DOWN TO BUISNESS Deck (59):
1

What takes pyruvate to the TCA cycle

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

thiamine cofactor

2

If there is no oxygen, what happens when you get to pyruvate

Pyruvate is converted into lactate by lactate dehydrogenase

3

If vessels R1 R2 and R3 are in parallel, how do you calculate total resistance

1/ TPR= 1/r1 + 1/r2 + 1/r3

Best explanation for total body circulation

4

if vessels are in series how do you calculate total resistance

Total resistance= r1 + r2+ r3 ....
(just add)

good descriptor for blood flow to an organ

5

BIOCHEM TIME! what cofactor helps amino acid metabolism

Pyridoxal phosphate- B6

cofactor in amino acid transamination and decarboxylation

6

What are NAD and NADP made from

Niacin

7

What are the risk factors for placenta accreta

Prior C section

8

What kind of acid / base problem comes with Aspirin OD

Resp Alkalosis- aspirin stimulates medullary respiratory center

Anion gap metabolic acidosis- uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation

9

what is metaplasia

when a normal cell type is replaced by an abnormal cell type

barrett--> squamous to columnar

smoking- columnar to squamous

10

This presents with
-hypercoag/ thrombosis
-Ectopia lentis
-Intellectual disability

homocytinuria

11

What is elevated in blood in homocystinuria

homocysteine builds up--> hypermethioninemia

12

What i wrong in homocystinuria

Defect in cystathionine

inability to form cysteine from homocysteine

cysteine becomes essential in diet

13

What do proteins destined for lysosome require

phosphorylation of manos in golgi

if you cant= inclusion cell disease

14

What is the wobble hypothesis

part of DNA being degenerate

wobble pairing = tRNA can recognize multiple codons coding for same amino acid (bond right to first 2 bases, 3 base obble binds)

15

What is the primary function of vitamin c

hydroxylation of proline and lysine (in collagen synthesis)

16

What is the purpose of vit b12

methyltransferase cofactor

DNA and methionine synthesis

17

What does vitamin b9 do

b9= folic acid

purine and thymine synthesis

18

What does vit b6 do

b6= pyridoxine

transamination in AA synthesis

19

What does Vitamin b3 do

b3= niacin

Hydrogen acceptor NAD/NADH

20

What does Riboflavin do

b2

mitochondrial h carrier

21

What does thiamine do

decarboxylation of a-keto-acids

22

b2 deficiency

angular cheilosis
stomatitis (mouth sore)
glossitis

Normocytic anemia

23

b6 deficiency

cheilosis
stomatitis
glossitis

24

What is THE LAST step of collagen synthesis

covalent cross links made by lysyl oxidase

25

What is first steps of collagen synthesis that occurs in the ER

1- Pre-Pro - a chain -->

2- Pro a chain-->

3-Vitamin C dependant hydroxylation of proline and lysine -->

4- Glycosylation of hydroxylysine

5- assembly of pro-a- chains into procollagen triple helix

26

What happens to collagen after it leaves the golgi

procollagen peptidase trims the sides up into tropocollagen

collagen bits spontaneously form

lysyl hydroxylase covalently cross links

27

What does helicase do

unwind DNA

28

What does Gyrase do/ what is another name for it

removes supercoils

topoisomerase

29

What does DNA POL 3 do

5'-->3' dna synthesis

proofreads 3'--> 5'

30

What direction is dna made

5' --> 3'

31

What is special that DNA POL 1 does

acts like dno pol 3

ALSO removes RNA primer - 5'--> 3' exonuclease and replaces w/ DNA

32

This is the old person change that makes them need glasses

Presbyopia

age related trouble with accommodation

cannot focus on near objects

33

Objects near are blurry

hyperopia

light focuses behind the retina

34

Objects far away appear blurry

Myopia- Near sighted

Light focused in front of retina

35

What is statistical power

1- B

B= probability of a type 2 error

36

What is a type 2 error

FALSE NEGATIVE

B= blinded by the truth

concluding that there is not a difference, when actually there is a difference

null hypothesis is not rejected, when in fact it is false

37

What is type 1 error

FALSE POSITIVE

a= "a"bserved a difference that did not exist

saying there is an effect when there is really no effect

NUll hypothesis rejected when it shouldn't be

38

How do you increase power



↑ power = ↓ B

↑ sample size, expected effect size, and precision

39

What does infliximab target

TNF a

IBD, RA, ankly spon, psoriasis

40

What does retuximad target

CD 20

41

What creates the resting membrane potential of -70 mV

high K conductance

some Na conductance

42

These drugs will increase insulin release

Sulfonylurea
Meglitinide

inhibits B -cell K atp channel

43

This drug for DM will cause lactic acidosis

Metformin

stimulates AMPK, decreasing glu production by liver

44

Name/ how do thiazolidinediones work

Pioglitazone
Rosiglitazone

Activates PPAR- y, and decreases insulin resistance

45

What is Exenatide

GLP-1 drug

↑ glu dependant insulin

↓ Glucagon secretion
↓ Gastric emptying

46

What is the side effect of Lireglutide

Pancreatitis

This is a GLP-1 Drug w/ exenatide. They share pancreatitis as the s/e

47

What is Sitagliptin and Saxaglipton

DPP4- inhibitor

Increases natural GLP-1 and GIP

48

What is acrabose

a- glucosidase inhibitor, ↓ intestinal sugar absorption

49

Name the SGLT2 inhibitors

Canagliflozin
Dapagliflozin

↑ renal glu extraction

(more FLOZ-INto the ua)

50

Releases watery secretion w/o membrane loss

Merocrine gland
ex: salivary

51

Releases membrane bound vesicle

Apocrine gland
ex: mamillary

52

Entire content of cell lysis

Holocrine gland

sebaceous glands

53

What is primary central nervous lymphome

large non hodgkin lymphoma

B cell origin

Can come from EBV

54

TB rx- inhibits DNA dependant RNA pol

Rifampin

55

TB rx- inhibition of mycolic acid

Isoniazid

56

Inhibition of arabinosyl transferase

ethambutol- tb rx

57

What is streptomycin

aminoglycoside

58

What enzyme is decreased and what enzyme is increased in Lesh Nyhan

Purine salvage problem

↑ PRPP amidotransferase to make purines de novo

↓ Hypoxanthine-guanine phophoribosyltransferase

59

Inheritance of lech nyne

X linked Recessive