Chapter 7 pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 pt. 2 Deck (30):
1

________ memory is used to refer to the processes that involve holding information in memory for problem-solving.

Working

2

Working memory is used to refer to the processes that involve holding information in memory for ________ ________.

problem solving

3

True or False: Long term memory is debatable.

False; unlimited is debatable

4

What are flashbulb memories?

- “flashbulb” memories are memories that are instantly encoded into long-term memory

5

Flashbulb memories can also turn into _____ memories.

false

6

________ memories can also turn into false memories.

Flashbulb

7

Who discovered that our memory actually fades at a fast rate?

Hermann Ebbinghaus

8

What are measures of memory?

retention
recall
recognition

9

What is the difference between retention, recall, and recognition?

retention-some cues
recall- more general than retention; no cues; ex. short answer/essay test questions
recognition- ex. multiple choice test

10

What are the reasons we forget?

ineffective learning
decay theory
interference
retrieval failure

11

What are the two different types of interference?

1. retroactive
2. proactive

12

What is the difference between retroactive and proactive?

retroactive: new information impairs the retention of previously learned information
proactive: old memories impede encoding of new information

13

What is motivated forgetting?

Used to be known as repression, people often keep embarrassing, unpleasant, or painful memories buried in their unconscious

14

Who discovered false memories?

Elizabeth Loftus

15

Hippocampus comes from Latin and Greek words hippos= ‘_____’ + campus= ‘ ___ ______’.

horse
sea monster

16

Hippocampus comes from Latin and Greek words ______= ‘horse’ + _______= ‘sea monster’.

hippos
campus

17

Without the ___________ and surrounding _______ _____ it's nearly impossible to form memories.

hippocampus
cortical area

18

Some procedural learning is made possible by the ______ _______

basal ganglia

19

What are the two types of amnesia?

1. anterograde amnesia
2. retrograde amnesia

20

What is the difference between anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia?

Anterograde amnesia: cannot lay down new memories (i.e., H.M.!).
Retrograde amnesia: can’t remember events pre-injury.

21

___________ amnesia can result when the hippocampus is damaged.

Anterograde

22

Anterograde amnesia can result when the ____________ is damaged.

hippocampus

23

_________ amnesia results from medical temporal lobe damage, and cortical damage

Retrograde

24

Retrograde amnesia results from medical _______ ____ damage, and _______ damage

temporal lobe
cortical

25

Where are memories stored?

Initially done using hippocampus and adjacent cortical areas

26

process which takes a weak labile memory and strengthens it, making it resistant to decay. Gradual process, that is in some cases sleep-dependent

consolidation

27

What are the systems of memories?

1. declarative memory system
2. non-declarative memory system

28

What is the difference between declarative memory system and non-declarative memory system?

Declarative memory system:
1. hippocampal-dependent
2. explicit memories
3. handles factual memories
Non-declarative memory system:
1. houses memories for actions, skills, conditioned responses
2. basal ganglia dependent

29

What are the two types of declarative memory subtypes?

1. episodic
2. semantic

30

What is the difference between episodic and semantic declarative memory subtypes?

Episodic:
1. Memory about events, personal experiences
2. Chronologically dates
Semantic:
1. Fact based knowledge
2. Includes verbal (i.e., language) knowledge