Chapter 8 pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 pt. 2 Deck (37):
1

List the common flaws in reasoning.

1. ignoring base rates
2. the conjunction fallacy
3. Gambler's fallacy
4. overestimating the improbable

2

What is the difference between conjunction fallacy and Gambler's fallacy?

Conjunction fallacy: occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone.

Gambler’s fallacy: belief that odds a chance event increase if the event has not occurred recently

3

What is loss aversion?

people tend to assume that losses will have more impact on them than gains of equal size

4

What test was created in 1905 to test intelligence?

Binet-Simo intelligence scale: created to find struggling school children (mental age)

5

Who created the Binet-Simo intelligence scale?

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon

6

What test was created in 1916 to test intelligence?

intelligence quotient (IQ)

7

Who created the IQ test?

Standford Binet

8

________-_______ (1916) was modified by Lewis Terman.

Standford-Binet

9

Standford-Binet (1916) was modified by ______ _______

Lewis Terman

10

What is the equation for finding IQ?

mental age/ chronological age x 100

11

What test was created in 1955 to test intelligence?

Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

12

Who invented the Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)?

David Drechsler

13

IQ score indicates where you fall in the _______ __________.

normal distribution

14

IQ tests are good indicators of _________/_______ intelligence.

academic/verbal

15

IQ tests are predictive of ___________ attainment.

occupational

16

IQ tests are predictive of occupational __________.

attainment

17

How do we find evidence for hereditary influence in intelligence?

twin studies

18

The general consensus is that about ___% of intelligence is heritable

50

19

How do we find evidence for environmental influence in intelligence?

adoption studies, cumulative deprivation hypothesis, and flynn effect

20

What is the difference between adoption studies, cumulative deprivation hypothesis, and the flynn effect?

Adoption studies- show that siblings reared together are more similar than siblings reared apart

Cumulative deprivation hypothesis-gradual decline in IQ when raised in substandard conditions

Flynn effect: industrialized nations show an increase in IQ over time

21

The flynn effect could be caused by reductions in the prevalence of ___________ among children.

malnutrition

22

The flynn effect could be caused by increased access to ___________ and more demanding curricula in schools over the last century.

education

23

The flynn effect could be caused by increased access to education and more demanding _________ in schools over the last century.

curricula

24

some believe we have a _________ ________, the genetically determined limits of IQ

Reaction Range

25

Why do people with higher IQ's tend to have better health?

they are more informed about health issues

26

Sternberg's theory of intelligence consists of what three intelligences?

analytical intelligence
creative intelligence
practical intelligence

27

What is the difference between analytical, creative, and practical intelligence

Analytical intelligence- mental steps of ‘components’ used to solve problems

Creative intelligence- use of experience in ways that foster insight

Practical intelligence- ability to read and adapt to the contexts of everyday life

28

Howard Gardner argues that IQ tests generally emphasize _______ and _____________ skills, often excluding other important skills.

verbal
mathematical

29

List Howard Gardner's intelligences.

1. Visual/Spatial Intelligence
2. Verbal/ Linguistic Intelligence
3. Logical/Mathematical Intelligence
4. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence
5. Musical Intelligence
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence
8. Naturalist Intelligence

30

Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves visual perception of the environment, the ability to create and manipulate mental images, and the orientation of the body in space.

Visual/Spatial Intelligence

31

Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves reading, writing, speaking, and conversing in one's own or foreign languages.

Verbal/ Linguistic Intelligence

32

Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves number and computing skills, recognizing patterns and relationships, timeliness and order, and the ability to solve different kinds of problems through logic.

Logical/Mathematical Intelligence

33

Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves physical coordination and dexterity, using fine and gross motor skills, and expressing oneself or learning through physical activities.

Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence

34

Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves understanding and expressing oneself through music and rhythmic movements or dance, or composing, playing, or conducting music.

Musical Intelligence

35

Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves understanding how to communicate with and understand other people and how to work collaboratively.

Interpersonal Intelligence

36

Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves understanding one's inner world of emotions and thoughts, and growing in the ability to control them and work with them consciously.

Intrapersonal Intelligence

37

Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves understanding the natural world of plants and animals, noticing their characteristics, and categorizing them; it generally involves keen observation and the ability to classify other things as well.

Naturalist Intelligence