Flashcards in Chapter 8 pt. 2 Deck (37):
List the common flaws in reasoning.
1. ignoring base rates
2. the conjunction fallacy
3. Gambler's fallacy
4. overestimating the improbable
What is the difference between conjunction fallacy and Gambler's fallacy?
Conjunction fallacy: occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone.
Gambler’s fallacy: belief that odds a chance event increase if the event has not occurred recently
What is loss aversion?
people tend to assume that losses will have more impact on them than gains of equal size
What test was created in 1905 to test intelligence?
Binet-Simo intelligence scale: created to find struggling school children (mental age)
Who created the Binet-Simo intelligence scale?
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
What test was created in 1916 to test intelligence?
intelligence quotient (IQ)
Who created the IQ test?
________-_______ (1916) was modified by Lewis Terman.
Standford-Binet (1916) was modified by ______ _______
What is the equation for finding IQ?
mental age/ chronological age x 100
What test was created in 1955 to test intelligence?
Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Who invented the Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)?
IQ score indicates where you fall in the _______ __________.
IQ tests are good indicators of _________/_______ intelligence.
IQ tests are predictive of ___________ attainment.
IQ tests are predictive of occupational __________.
How do we find evidence for hereditary influence in intelligence?
The general consensus is that about ___% of intelligence is heritable
How do we find evidence for environmental influence in intelligence?
adoption studies, cumulative deprivation hypothesis, and flynn effect
What is the difference between adoption studies, cumulative deprivation hypothesis, and the flynn effect?
Adoption studies- show that siblings reared together are more similar than siblings reared apart
Cumulative deprivation hypothesis-gradual decline in IQ when raised in substandard conditions
Flynn effect: industrialized nations show an increase in IQ over time
The flynn effect could be caused by reductions in the prevalence of ___________ among children.
The flynn effect could be caused by increased access to ___________ and more demanding curricula in schools over the last century.
The flynn effect could be caused by increased access to education and more demanding _________ in schools over the last century.
some believe we have a _________ ________, the genetically determined limits of IQ
Why do people with higher IQ's tend to have better health?
they are more informed about health issues
Sternberg's theory of intelligence consists of what three intelligences?
What is the difference between analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
Analytical intelligence- mental steps of ‘components’ used to solve problems
Creative intelligence- use of experience in ways that foster insight
Practical intelligence- ability to read and adapt to the contexts of everyday life
Howard Gardner argues that IQ tests generally emphasize _______ and _____________ skills, often excluding other important skills.
List Howard Gardner's intelligences.
1. Visual/Spatial Intelligence
2. Verbal/ Linguistic Intelligence
3. Logical/Mathematical Intelligence
4. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence
5. Musical Intelligence
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence
8. Naturalist Intelligence
Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves visual perception of the environment, the ability to create and manipulate mental images, and the orientation of the body in space.
Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves reading, writing, speaking, and conversing in one's own or foreign languages.
Verbal/ Linguistic Intelligence
Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves number and computing skills, recognizing patterns and relationships, timeliness and order, and the ability to solve different kinds of problems through logic.
Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves physical coordination and dexterity, using fine and gross motor skills, and expressing oneself or learning through physical activities.
Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves understanding and expressing oneself through music and rhythmic movements or dance, or composing, playing, or conducting music.
Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves understanding how to communicate with and understand other people and how to work collaboratively.
Which one of Gardner's intelligences is this: Involves understanding one's inner world of emotions and thoughts, and growing in the ability to control them and work with them consciously.