Final Exam pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam pt. 1 Deck (46):
1

What is the difference between an independent and dependent variable?

Independent variable (IV): condition or event varied by the experimenter.
Dependent variable (DV): variable that is affected by manipulation

2

The ___________ variable affects the dependent variable. .

independent

3

The independent variable affects the _________ variable. .

dependent

4

What are the stages of forming memory?

1. encoding
2. storage
3. retrieval

5

What are the three main types of memory?

1. Sensory memory
2. short-term memory
3. long-term memory

6

What is stress?

any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well-being, or challenge coping abilities

7

What are the main types of stress?

1. frustration
2. conflict
3. change
4. Pressure

8

Which type of stress is this: is experienced whenever the pursuit of some goal is thwarted

frustration

9

Which type of stress is this: being in traffic

frustration

10

Which type of stress is this:experiencing technology failures

frustration

11

Which type of stress is this: bad pet behavior

bad pet behavior

12

Which type of stress is this: typically short-lived issues, although they cause short bursts of high-level stress

frustration

13

Which type of stress is this: are any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require adjustment

change

14

Which type of stress is this: occurs when 2 or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression

conflict

15

Which type of stress is this: involves expectations or demands to behave in a certain way

pressure

16

Which type of stress is this: most often self-imposed!

pressure

17

What are the different type of scenarios that can cause conflict stress?

1. approach-approach
2. avoidance-avoidance
3. approach-avoidance

18

What is the difference between approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, and approach-avoidance in conflict stress?

1. approach-approach- both choices are attractive
2. avoidance-avoidance- both choices are unattractive
3. approach-avoidance- an unattractive and attractive choice are both present

19

What type of expectations led to pressure?

- performance
- physical appearance
- conforming to rules

20

Who created the social readjustment scale?

Holmes and Rahe (1967)

21

The _______ ___________ _______ ______ (____) allows for quantification of the degree of stress a life change (or group of changes) caused

Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)

22

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) measures:
a. change
b. frustration
c. control
d. aggression

a. change

23

What are the common emotional responses to stress?

- annoyance, anger, and rage
- apprehension, anxiety, fear
- dejection, sadness, grief

24

Positive reactions to stress appears to lead to ________

resilience

25

What are the two main physiological responses to stress?

1. Fight or Flight Response
2. General Adaption Syndrome

26

What are the three components of the general adaption syndrome?

1. alarm
2. resistance
3. exhaustion

27

What is the behavioral response to stress?

coping- active efforts to master, reduce, and tolerate the demands created by stress

28

What are the five different ways people cope?

1. Giving up and blaming oneself
2. Aggression
3. Indulging oneself
4. Defensive coping
5. Constructive Coping

29

Giving up and blaming oneself promotes _______ ___________, passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.

learned helplessness

30

Learned helplessness is evident in ________ ________.

domestic violence

31

What is the frustration-aggression hypothesis?

aggression is always caused by frustration

32

_______ is the release of emotional tension.

catharsis

33

Why did Freud argue against catharsis?

Most research suggests acting in an aggressive manner tends to fuel more anger and aggression

34

Stress can cause reduced _______ _______.

impulse control

35

_______ _________ counts as indulging oneself.

Internet addiction

36

_______ ___________ are a form of defensive coping.

Defense mechanisms

37

How can you apply constructive coping?

1. cognitive reappraisal: Albert Ellis’s Rational Thinking
2. humor
3. expressing emotions and forgiving others
4. relaxation techniques and minimizing physiological vulnerabilities

38

What are the physical effects of stress?

heart disease and personality (type A), heart disease and emotional reactions, and stress and immune functioning.

39

What are the factors moderating the impact of stress?

1. social support
2. optimism
3. conscientiousness
4. resilence

40

What are the two types of social support?

1. explicit social support
2. implicit social support

41

High social support is related to better _______ functioning

immune

42

general tendency to expect good outcomes

optimism

43

Optimism is related to good _______ _______ and effective _______ functioning.

physical health
immune

44

High in ______________, means your less likely to exhibit unhealthy habits.

conscientiousness

45

Resilience shows that stress can promote ________ _______ or _____ __________.

personal growth
self improvement

46

What is the inverted U hypothesis?

The inverted-U hypothesis predicts that task performance should improve with increased emotional arousal…to an extent