Flashcards in Final Exam pt. 1 Deck (46):
What is the difference between an independent and dependent variable?
Independent variable (IV): condition or event varied by the experimenter.
Dependent variable (DV): variable that is affected by manipulation
The ___________ variable affects the dependent variable. .
The independent variable affects the _________ variable. .
What are the stages of forming memory?
What are the three main types of memory?
1. Sensory memory
2. short-term memory
3. long-term memory
What is stress?
any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well-being, or challenge coping abilities
What are the main types of stress?
Which type of stress is this: is experienced whenever the pursuit of some goal is thwarted
Which type of stress is this: being in traffic
Which type of stress is this:experiencing technology failures
Which type of stress is this: bad pet behavior
bad pet behavior
Which type of stress is this: typically short-lived issues, although they cause short bursts of high-level stress
Which type of stress is this: are any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require adjustment
Which type of stress is this: occurs when 2 or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression
Which type of stress is this: involves expectations or demands to behave in a certain way
Which type of stress is this: most often self-imposed!
What are the different type of scenarios that can cause conflict stress?
What is the difference between approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, and approach-avoidance in conflict stress?
1. approach-approach- both choices are attractive
2. avoidance-avoidance- both choices are unattractive
3. approach-avoidance- an unattractive and attractive choice are both present
What type of expectations led to pressure?
- physical appearance
- conforming to rules
Who created the social readjustment scale?
Holmes and Rahe (1967)
The _______ ___________ _______ ______ (____) allows for quantification of the degree of stress a life change (or group of changes) caused
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) measures:
What are the common emotional responses to stress?
- annoyance, anger, and rage
- apprehension, anxiety, fear
- dejection, sadness, grief
Positive reactions to stress appears to lead to ________
What are the two main physiological responses to stress?
1. Fight or Flight Response
2. General Adaption Syndrome
What are the three components of the general adaption syndrome?
What is the behavioral response to stress?
coping- active efforts to master, reduce, and tolerate the demands created by stress
What are the five different ways people cope?
1. Giving up and blaming oneself
3. Indulging oneself
4. Defensive coping
5. Constructive Coping
Giving up and blaming oneself promotes _______ ___________, passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.
Learned helplessness is evident in ________ ________.
What is the frustration-aggression hypothesis?
aggression is always caused by frustration
_______ is the release of emotional tension.
Why did Freud argue against catharsis?
Most research suggests acting in an aggressive manner tends to fuel more anger and aggression
Stress can cause reduced _______ _______.
_______ _________ counts as indulging oneself.
_______ ___________ are a form of defensive coping.
How can you apply constructive coping?
1. cognitive reappraisal: Albert Ellis’s Rational Thinking
3. expressing emotions and forgiving others
4. relaxation techniques and minimizing physiological vulnerabilities
What are the physical effects of stress?
heart disease and personality (type A), heart disease and emotional reactions, and stress and immune functioning.
What are the factors moderating the impact of stress?
1. social support
What are the two types of social support?
1. explicit social support
2. implicit social support
High social support is related to better _______ functioning
general tendency to expect good outcomes
Optimism is related to good _______ _______ and effective _______ functioning.
High in ______________, means your less likely to exhibit unhealthy habits.
Resilience shows that stress can promote ________ _______ or _____ __________.