Chapter 9 pt. 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 pt. 3 Deck (44):
1

What is achievement motivation?

"The need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence"

2

Achievement motivation was pioneered by ______ _________

David McClelland

3

Who modified achievement motivation?

John Atkinson

4

What are the components to situational differences in achievement?

1. strength of one’s motivation to achieve
2. estimate of one’s probability of success
3. the incentive value of success

5

the components to situational differences in achievement:
1. strength of one’s motivation to achieve
-______ from task to task
2. estimate of one’s probability of success
-_______ from task to task
3. the incentive value of success
-tangible and intangible _______

stable
variable
rewards

6

the components to situational differences in achievement:
1. strength of one’s motivation to achieve
-stable from task to task
2. estimate of one’s probability of success
-variable from task to task
3. the incentive value of success
-________ and _________ rewards

tangible
intangible

7

Your achievement motivation is not the only determine of how hard you work. There are also _________ factors.

situational

8

Motivation can cause _________.

emotion

9

_________ can cause emotion.

Motivation

10

What are the three components of emotion?

1. Cognitive
2. Physiological
3. Behavioral

11

Explain the cognitive component of emotion.

cognitive appraisal of an event or subjective conscious experience

12

Explain the Physiological component of emotion.

bodily arousal such as the fight or flight response

13

Explain the Behavioral component of emotion.

characteristic overt expressions

14

Affective forecasting and impact bias are part of what component of emotion?

Cognitive Component of Emotion

15

What is affective forecasting?

effort to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events

16

What is impact bias?

inability to accurately predict intensity and duration of emotional reactions

17

Psychologists rely on highly subjective ______ reports of what people are experiencing in order to learn about the cognitive components of emotion.

verbal

18

Psychologists rely on highly subjective verbal reports of what people are experiencing in order to learn about the _________ components of emotion.

cognitive

19

The conscious experience of emotion involves an __________.

evaluation

20

People characterize their emotions as ________ or ________.

pleasant
unpleasant

21

People’s cognitive appraisal of events in their lives are determinants of their __________ experience.
However, these evaluations can be automatic and subconscious as well.

emotional

22

People’s cognitive appraisal of events in their lives are determinants of their emotional experience.
However, these evaluations can be __________ and __________ as well.

automatic
subconscious

23

People tend to be pretty good at predicting whether events will generate ________ or ________ emotions…
HOWEVER, they are often way off in their predictions about the intensity and duration of their emotional responses.

positive
negative

24

People tend to be pretty good at predicting whether events will generate positive or negative ________…
HOWEVER, they are often way off in their predictions about the intensity and duration of their emotional responses.

emotions

25

People tend to be pretty good at predicting whether events will generate positive or negative emotions…
HOWEVER, they are often way off in their predictions about the _______ and ________ of their emotional responses.

intensity
duration

26

What makes up the Physiological component of emotion?

autonomic nervous system & Limbic System

27

What two types of nerves are involved in the Physiological component of emotion?

1. parasympathetic nervers “rest and digest”
2. sympathetic nervers “fight or flight"

28

What does our Limbic System consist of?

The amygdala, which plays a great role in fear, sends signals to the hypothalamus. Then, it leads to autonomic arousal and hormonal responses.

29

Ekman and Friesen conducted research that suggest that people are generally successful in identifying ___ basic emotions.

6

30

_______ and ______ conducted research that suggest that people are generally successful in identifying 6 basic emotions.

Ekman
Friesen

31

What is facial feedback hypothesis?

suggests that facial muscles send signals to the brain and these signals help the brain recognize which emotion a person is experiencing.

32

List the three theories on emotion.

1. James-Lange Theory
2. Cannon-Bard Theory
3. Steatite’s Two Factor Theory

33

Explain James-Lange Theory.

The conscious experience of emotions results from one’s perception of autonomic arousal.

34

Autonomic specificity is part of which theory of emotion and what is it?

James-Lange Theory.
Autonomic specificit- suggests that different emotions are accompanied by different patterns of autonomic activation.

35

James-Lange Theory = ________ -> bodily arousal->emotion

stimulus

36

James-Lange Theory = stimulus -> ______ ______->emotion

bodily arousal

37

James-Lange Theory = stimulus -> bodily arousal-> _______

emotion

38

Explain Cannon-Bard Theory.

Emotions occur when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex (conscious experience) and autonomic nervous system (physical arousal).

39

Cannon-Bard Theory:
physiological arousal + cognitive interpretation = _________ _________

emotional experience

40

Cannon-Bard Theory:
___________ ________ + cognitive interpretation = emotional experience

physiological arousal

41

Cannon-Bard Theory:
physiological arousal + _______ ____________ = emotional experience

cognitive interpretation

42

What are the three rebuttals to Cannon-Bard's Theory?

1. Arousal may occur without the experience of emotion
2. Physical changes are too slow to precede conscious experience
3. People experience different emotions with almost identical patterns of arousal (e.g., fear and anger)

43

Explain Steatite’s Two Factor Theory.

emotion depends on :
1. autonomic arousal
2. cognitive interpretation of that arousal

44

According to Steatite’s Two Factor Theory, people look at ________ ____ to differentiate between emotions.

situation cues