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Flashcards in Chapter 2 pt.2 Deck (20):
1

Descriptive/ Correlational Methods are used when a researcher cannot ___________ the variables under study

manipulate

2

What are different types of descriptive/correlational methods?

-naturalistic observation
-case study
-survey

3

What type of descriptive/correlational method is this:
Researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects.

Naturalistic Observation

4

What type of descriptive/correlational method is this:
In-depth investigation of an individual subject.

Case Study

5

What type of descriptive/correlational method is this:
Researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants’ behavior.

Survey

6

In most research there is usually some combination of ________ information and __________ data

survey
observation

7

How do we measure a relationship between two variables when we didn’t manipulate anything?

- Correlation (statistical test)
- Measures the pattern of two variables, result tells you if there is a reliable pattern of change between the two variables

8

When the pattern is reliable (i.e., happens consistently), we say the 2 variables are ___________.

correlated

9

How do correlation statistics work?

-There's a correlation coefficient
-the correlation is expressed a s a number between 0 & 1

10

statistic used to summarize of degree of relationship

correlation coefficient

11

A correlation can be ________ or _______ ; or weak or strong

negative
positive

12

A correlation can be negative or positive; or ______ or _______

weak
strong

13

________ __________ _________=increased ability to predict one variable based on the other

higher correlation coefficients

14

In terms of correlation:
- Larger numbers = ________ relationship between variables
- Smaller numbers = _______ relationship between variables

stronger
weaker

15

In terms of correlation:
-________ numbers = stronger relationship between variables
-_______ numbers = weaker relationship between variables

larger
smaller

16

Two variables may be highly correlated, but not ________ _______

casually related

17

Two variables may be highly ________, but not causally related

correlated

18

What are the advantages of Descriptive/Correlational Research?

Explore questions that cannot be examined experimentally

19

What are the disadvantages of Descriptive/Correlational Research?

Investigators cannot control events to isolate cause and effect

20

What are the flaws you can encounter when evaluating research?

(1) sampling bias
(2) placebo effects
(3) distortions in self-report data
(4) experimenter bias