Chapter 10 pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101 > Chapter 10 pt. 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 pt. 1 Deck (35):
1

What are the three main stages of prenatal development?

1. germinal
2. embryonic
3. fetal

2

The Germinal Period occurs from __-__ weeks.

0-2

3

What happens during the Germinal Period?

-initially formed cell begins to rapidly divide and multiply
- zygote migrates to uterus and implants on wall
- placenta is formed

4

The Embryonic Period occurs from __weeks to __ months.

2
2

5

What is formed during the Embryonic Period?

most of vital organs (heart, spine, brain)

6

Explain the steps that happen during the Embryonic Stage.

1. embryo at about 2 weeks, neural tube just formed
2. just 5 days later, moved into Embryonic Stage
3. end of the Embryonic Stage

7

The Fetal Period happens from __ months to birth.

2

8

The age of viability occurs in the _____ stage.

fetal

9

What is the age of viability?

basically the point in which a child can survive outside of the womb

10

What occurs during the fetal period?

1. muscles and bones develop
2. sex organs develop in the 3rd-month
3. auditory system (peripheral) developed around 6 mo.
4. neural development continues

11

When does the age of viability occurs?

23-26 weeks

12

At __ weeks 50% survival, if born prematurely.
At 26 weeks __% survival, if born prematurely.

23
75%

13

At 23 weeks __% survival, if born prematurely
At __ weeks 75% survival, if born prematurely

50%
26

14

True or False: The earlier that damage occurs, the worse off the individual will be.

True

15

What are the two main risk factors that affect pregnancy?

1. Malnutrition
2. Air pollution

16

How does malnutrition affect pregnancy?

neurological problems; vulnerability to schizophrenia

17

How does air pollution affect pregnancy?

cognitive impairment at age 5

18

What is fetal alcohol syndrome?

result of excessive alcohol use during pregnancy, significantly impairs brain development

19

Other than fetal alcohol syndrome, what symptoms can babies have from alcohol?

1. Microcephaly- bones fuse too early, brain development halted
2. Intellectual disability
3. Congenital defects

20

Even moderate drinking can be dangerous because is causes...

- IQ deficits
- Attention difficulties
-Impulsive or delinquent behaviors

21

What are the results of tobacco use during pregnancy?

- Smaller frontal lobes and cerebellar volumes,
- Low birth weight
- Higher risk for miscarriage

22

What are the results of marijuana use during pregnancy?

-Impairs nerve development and guidance
-Permanent cognitive deficits
-concentration disorders
-hyperactivity

23

What are developmental norms and why are they important?

Norms that indicate the typical median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities.
They are important because they allow parents to see if their child is delayed or “on time”.

24

What is attachment?

Close, emotional bond between infants & caregivers

25

List the different types of attachment described by Mary
Ainsworth.

1. Secure attachment
2. anxious-ambivalent attachment
3. avoidant attachment

26

Which type of attachment is this: explore while M is present, upset when she leaves.Most common; associated w/curiosity, leadership, resilience

Secure attachment

27

Which type of attachment is this: show moderate anxiety when M is present, high anxiety when she leaves, moderate when she returns

anxious-ambivalent attachment

28

Which type of attachment is this:babies sought little contact with mothers and were not distressed when she left

avoidant attachment

29

What was the Harlow Study and what was discovered as a result of it?

It was a study that removed infant monkeys from their mothers and raised them in the lab.
It involved 2 types of “substitute mothers”:
“Cloth” mother “Wire” mother
All monkeys sought comfort from cloth mother when they were frightened, regardless of group

30

List Erikon's Stages of Development.

Stage 1: Trust vs Mistrust
Stage 2: Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt
Stage 3: Initiate vs. Guilt
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority
Stage 5: Identity or confusion
Stage 6: intimacy vs isolation
Stage 7: Generativity vs Self-absorption
Stage 8: Integrity vs Despair

31

List Piaget's Stages of Development.

1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete operational
4. Formal operational

32

Which of Piaget's Stages does, object permanence, occur?

Sensorimotor

33

Which of Piaget's Stages does, centration, Irreversibility, and Egocentrism, occur?

Preoperational

34

Which of Piaget's Stages does, Decentration, occur?

Concrete operational

35

What changes occur during aging?

1. Changes in appearance
2. Neuron & sensory loss
3. Hormonal changes
4. Small decline in IQ after 60