Exam #2 Short Answer pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #2 Short Answer pt. 1 Deck (37):
1

What is the difference between Pavlovian Conditioning and Operant Conditioning?

In Pavlovian Conditioning, a stimulus acquires the capacity to unnaturally evoke a response that was naturally evoked by another stimulus.
Pavlovian Conditioning also contains a US, UR, CS, & CR.
Operant Conditioning, is based on reinforcement.

2

Who created Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning?

Pavlov created Classical Conditioning (aka Pavlovian Conditioning).
B.F. Skinner created Operant Conditioning.

3

What are the stages of Pavlovian Conditioning, and what happens in each stage?

1. Acquisition-two things being paired together repeatedly
2. Extinction-the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
3. Spontaneous Recovery-a recovery of a conditioned response even though you’ve already extinguished it
4. Renewal Effect

4

What are the stages of Operant Conditioning, and what happens in each stage?

1. Acquisition-shaping (gradual process)
2. Extinction-the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency

5

What is the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning when it comes to Acquisition?

1. classical conditioning: CS and US are paired, gradually resulting in CR
2. operant conditioning: Responding gradually increases because of reinforcement, possibly through shaping

6

What is the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning when it comes to Extinction?

1. classical conditioning: CS is presented alone until it no longer elicits CR
2. operant conditioning: responding gradually slows and stops after reinforcement is terminated

7

What is the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning when it comes to Stimulus generalization?

1. classical conditioning: CR is elicited by new stimulus that resembles original CS
2. operant conditioning: responding increases in the presence of new stimulus that resembles original discriminative stimulus

8

What is the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning when it comes to Stimulus discrimination?

1. classical conditioning: CR is not elicited by new stimulus that resembles original CS
2. operant conditioning: responding does not increase in the presence of new stimulus that resembles original discriminative stimulus

9

____________ increases the likelihood of making a response.
____________ decreases the likelihood of making a response.

Reinforcement
Punishment

10

Reinforcement ________ the likelihood of making a response.
Punishment ________ the likelihood of making a response.

increases
decreases

11

Positive reinforcement (+):
the likelihood of a response occurring is strengthened by ________ a rewarding stimulus

providing

12

________ _____________ (+):
the likelihood of a response occurring is strengthened by providing a rewarding stimulus

Positive reinforcement

13

_________ _____________ (-): the likelihood of a response occurring is strengthened by taking away an aversive stimulus

Negative reinforcement

14

Negative reinforcement (-): the likelihood of a response occurring is strengthened by ______ _____ an aversive stimulus

taking away

15

What are the two different types of negative reinforcement?

1. escape learning
2. avoidance learning

16

What is the difference between escape learning and avoidance learning?

escape learning- learning a response that decreases or ends aversive stimulation
Avoidance learning- learning a response that prevents some aversive stimulation

17

Is this escape learning or avoidance learning: "leaving a party where you were getting picked on. Now you consider escaping/ running away as viable solution for conflict"?

escape learning

18

Is this escape learning or avoidance learning: "you’ve just learned that it's started to pour rain on Tropicana and Paradise. You decided to wait to leave UNLV until the water has dried up to avoid water damage to your car" ?

avoidance learning

19

Positive punishment (+): reduces the likelihood of making a response by _________/________ an aversive stimulus

providing/giving

20

________ ___________ (+): reduces the likelihood of making a response by providing/giving an aversive stimulus

Positive punishment

21

Negative punishment (-): reduces the likelihood of making a response by ________ a rewarding stimulus (i.e., like freedom, TV privileges)

removing

22

________ ___________ (-): reduces the likelihood of making a response by removing a rewarding stimulus (i.e., like freedom, TV privileges)

Negative punishment

23

Is this reinforcement or punishment, and is it positive or negative: "sending an adult to jail after getting charged with breaking and entering, and also grand larceny"?

negative punishment

24

Is this reinforcement or punishment, and is it positive or negative: "sending a child to “time-out” after/ as they threw a tantrum"?

negative punishment

25

Is this reinforcement or punishment, and is it positive or negative: "spanking a child after/as they threw a tantrum"?

positive punishment

26

Is this reinforcement or punishment, and is it positive or negative: "rewarding a child for receiving a an excellent report card by taking away one of their mandatory weekly chores"?

negative reinforcement

27

Is this reinforcement or punishment, and is it positive or negative: "reward a child with an ice cream cone after receiving an excellent report card"?

positive reinforcement

28

what brain areas contribute to memory formation, and what does each one do?

1. hippocampus
2. Cortical area (medial temporal lobe)
without 1. & 2. memory formation is near impossible
3. Basal ganglia- procedural learning

29

What is the difference between the symptoms of anterograde and retrograde amnesia, and where brain damage occurs to cause this type of issue?

Anterograde amnesia:
- cannot lay down new memories (i.e., H.M.!)
- hippocampus is damaged

Retrograde amnesia
- can’t remember events pre-injury
- results from medical temporal lobe damage, and cortical damage

30

What are the three main types of problems?

1. problems of inducing structure
2. problems of arrangement
3. problems of transformation

31

Analogy problems are part of what types of main problem?

problems of inducing structure

32

Series completions are part of what type of main problem?

problems of inducing structure

33

Anagram problems are part of what type of main problem?

problems of arrangement

34

Problem is to find the steps are part of what type of main problem?

problems of transformation

35

Which type of main problem is this: discovering the relations among parts of the problem in order to solve it (i.e. numbers, words, symbols, ideas)?

problems of inducing structure

36

Which type of main problem is this: where you must arrange the parts in a way that satisfies some criterion?

problems of arrangement

37

Which type of main problem is this: involve carrying out a sequence of transformation in order to reach a specific goal?

problems of transformation