Chapter 8 pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 pt. 1 Deck (37):
1

What are the two main components of thinking?

1. cognition
2. intelligence

2

What is the difference between cognition and intelligence?

Cognition is how we think and solve problems.
Intelligence is how well we think and solve problems (i.e. ability).

3

__________ is how we think and solve problems.

Cognition

4

____________ is how well we think and solve problems (i.e. ability).

Intelligence

5

refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable

problem solving

6

What are the three main types of problems?

1. problems of inducing structure
2. problems of arrangement
3. problems of transformation

7

Which of the three main problem types is this: discovering the relations among parts of the problem in order to solve it (i.e. numbers, words, symbols, ideas)

problems of inducing structure

8

Which of the three main problem types is this: where you must arrange the parts in a way that satisfies some criterion

problems of arrangement

9

Which of the three main problem types is this: involve carrying out a sequence of transformation in order to reach a specific goal

problems of transformation

10

_______ problems and ______ __________ are part of problems of inducing structure.

Analogy
series completion

11

Analogy problems and series completions are part of problems of ________ __________.

inducing structure.

12

_________ problems are part of problems of arrangement.

Anagram

13

Anagram problems are part of problems of ___________.

arrangement

14

________ is to find the _____ is part of problems of transformation.

Problem
steps

15

Problem is to find the steps is part of problems of ______________.

transformation

16

Analogy problem: spouse is to husband, as sibling is to?
a. uncle
b. bother
c. son

b. brother

17

Series completion:
complete the series:
- 12834656__
- ABMCDM__

4
E

18

Anagram problems:
-ex. P-T-T-M-E =______
-ex. H-U-L-A-G =______

TEMPT
LAUGH

19

Problem is to find the steps:
- ex. _______ ___ _____ _______

Hobbits and Orcs problem

20

List the barriers to problem soling.

1. functional fixedness
2. mental set
3. irrelevant information
4. assuming unnecessary constraints

21

Which barrier to problem solving is this: a tendency to perceive an item only in the terms of its most common use

functional fixedness

22

Which barrier to problem solving is this: exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past

mental set

23

Which barrier to problem solving is this: details in a problem that lead people astray from the solution

irrelevant information

24

Which barrier to problem solving is this: placing unnecessary constraints upon a problem

assuming unnecessary constraints

25

List the different approaches to problem solving.

1. trial and error
2. forming subgoals
3. searching for analogies
4. changing the Representation of the problem
5. taking a break

26

Which type of approach to problem solving is the least affective?

trial and error

27

Which type of approach to problem solving is the most common?

trial and error

28

_________ _______ involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.

Decision making

29

How do we make decisions?
People can make a list of pros and cons, eliminate choices based on some set of criteria...but more likely we use _________

Heuristics

30

________- making a quick decision using mental shortcuts.

Heuristics

31

Heuristics- making a quick _______ using mental shortcuts.

decision

32

Heuristics- making a quick decision using ______ ________

mental shortcuts

33

__________ ________, involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind

Availability heuristic

34

"Which is more likely cause of death? suicide or murder"
The answer is suicide but most people would sat murder. Therefore, how is this an example of availability heuristic?

People use the knowledge they have available, and more murders are reported by the media than suicides.

35

Why may availability heuristics fail?

you may be better able to remember instances that occur infrequently

36

________________ ________, basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.

Representativeness heuristic

37

What is the difference between availability and representatives heuristic?

Availability heuristic- involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind

Representativeness heuristic- basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event