Flashcards in Chapter 8 pt. 1 Deck (37):
What are the two main components of thinking?
What is the difference between cognition and intelligence?
Cognition is how we think and solve problems.
Intelligence is how well we think and solve problems (i.e. ability).
__________ is how we think and solve problems.
____________ is how well we think and solve problems (i.e. ability).
refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable
What are the three main types of problems?
1. problems of inducing structure
2. problems of arrangement
3. problems of transformation
Which of the three main problem types is this: discovering the relations among parts of the problem in order to solve it (i.e. numbers, words, symbols, ideas)
problems of inducing structure
Which of the three main problem types is this: where you must arrange the parts in a way that satisfies some criterion
problems of arrangement
Which of the three main problem types is this: involve carrying out a sequence of transformation in order to reach a specific goal
problems of transformation
_______ problems and ______ __________ are part of problems of inducing structure.
Analogy problems and series completions are part of problems of ________ __________.
_________ problems are part of problems of arrangement.
Anagram problems are part of problems of ___________.
________ is to find the _____ is part of problems of transformation.
Problem is to find the steps is part of problems of ______________.
Analogy problem: spouse is to husband, as sibling is to?
complete the series:
-ex. P-T-T-M-E =______
-ex. H-U-L-A-G =______
Problem is to find the steps:
- ex. _______ ___ _____ _______
Hobbits and Orcs problem
List the barriers to problem soling.
1. functional fixedness
2. mental set
3. irrelevant information
4. assuming unnecessary constraints
Which barrier to problem solving is this: a tendency to perceive an item only in the terms of its most common use
Which barrier to problem solving is this: exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past
Which barrier to problem solving is this: details in a problem that lead people astray from the solution
Which barrier to problem solving is this: placing unnecessary constraints upon a problem
assuming unnecessary constraints
List the different approaches to problem solving.
1. trial and error
2. forming subgoals
3. searching for analogies
4. changing the Representation of the problem
5. taking a break
Which type of approach to problem solving is the least affective?
trial and error
Which type of approach to problem solving is the most common?
trial and error
_________ _______ involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.
How do we make decisions?
People can make a list of pros and cons, eliminate choices based on some set of criteria...but more likely we use _________
________- making a quick decision using mental shortcuts.
Heuristics- making a quick _______ using mental shortcuts.
Heuristics- making a quick decision using ______ ________
__________ ________, involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
"Which is more likely cause of death? suicide or murder"
The answer is suicide but most people would sat murder. Therefore, how is this an example of availability heuristic?
People use the knowledge they have available, and more murders are reported by the media than suicides.
Why may availability heuristics fail?
you may be better able to remember instances that occur infrequently
________________ ________, basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.