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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (43):
1

Social psychology scientifically studies how we _____ ______, _________, and ______ to one another.

think about
influence
relate

2

What is vocal fry?

young females use this frequently. long drawn out vocal sounds.

3

What is the halo effect?

when one good quality overshadows other qualities

4

widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group

stereotypes

5

What is illusionary correlation?

more likely to pay attention to instances where your stereotype is proven, as opposed to when they are incorrect

6

Social thinking is attributing behavior to ________ or to __________.

persons
situations

7

______ _________ is attributing behavior to persons or to situations.

Social thinking

8

What is attribution theory?

tendency to give casual explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition

9

What are fundamental attribution errors?

occur when an observers’ bias to explain others behavior in terms of internal attributions

10

Why does attribution error occur?

It's due to visual perspective.

11

Explain the example of a videotaped confession and attribution error.

Evaluations of videotaped confessions could be altered by changes in the camera perspective. Some thought the interview was just, while others thought the interview was coerced.

12

List the key factors in attraction.

1. Physical attractiveness
2. Matching Hypothesis
3. Similarity
4. Proximity

13

What are the two types of romantic love?

1. passionate love
2. companionate love

14

________ ___________ proposes that males and females of approximate attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners.

Matching Hypothesis

15

What is the difference between passionate and companionate love?

Passionate Love- An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
Companionate Love- A deep, affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.

16

_________ are positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought.

Attitudes

17

Attitudes are positive or negative _________ of objects of ________.

evaluations
thought

18

What are the three components of attitude?

1. cognitive component
2. affective component
3. behavioral component

19

Which component of attitude is this: beliefs & ideas?

cognitive component

20

Which component of attitude is this: emotions & feelings?

affective component

21

Which component of attitude is this: predispositions to act?

behavioral component

22

The components of attitude vary according to ________, _________, and _____________.

strength
strength
ambivalence

23

Using the example of gun control, explain the components of attitude.

1. cognitive component (beliefs, ideas)
- “gun owners end up shooting themselves more often than they shoot thieves"
2. affective component (emotions, feelings)
- “guns make me sick"
3. behavioral component (predispositions to act)
- “I vote for gun-control advocates whenever possible"

24

The _______ theory states that ________ form and change due to evaluative conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning.

learning
attitudes

25

The learning theory states that attitudes form and change due to _________ conditioning, _________ conditioning, and ___________ learning.

evaluative
operant
observational

26

Why do actions affect attitudes?

One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension.
This is called cognitive dissonance.

27

To relieve ourselves of this tension (cognitive dissonance) we bring our _______ closer to our _______.

attitudes
actions

28

What are the components of prejudice?

- beliefs (stereotypes)
- emotions (hostility, envy, fear)
- predisposition to act (to discriminate)

29

What is the difference between ingroup, outgroup, and ingroup bias?

Ingroup: people with whom one shares a common identity
Outgroup: those perceived as different from one’s ingroup
Ingroup bias: the tendency to favor one’s own group

30

Over the duration of time many prejudices against interracial marriage, gender, homosexuality, and minorities have ___________.

decreased

31

The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions and the way they are molded by _______ ___________.

social influence

32

What is social loafing?

the tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually

33

______ ___________: refers to improved performance on tasks in the presence of others or it could lead to choking on tasks that are not well learned

Social facilitation

34

What happened to Kitty Genovese?

she was raped and murdered right outside her apartment, there was many bystanders there, and nobody did anything to stop it

35

Explain the bystander effect?

The tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
The more people who are present the less likely you are to do anything about it.

36

What is the the decision-making process for bystander to intervene?

- first you have to notice the incident
- then interpret the incident as emergency
- then, you assume responsibility
- and finally you attempt to help

37

What is group polarization?

Enhances a group’s prevailing attitudes through a discussion.
If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions and attitudes

38

a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives.

group think

39

_____________ is the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Deindividuation

40

Deindividuation is the loss of self-________ and self-_______ in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

awareness
restraint

41

Deindividuation is the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster _______ and ________.

arousal
anonymity

42

Behavior is _________. We follow behavior of others to _______.

contagious
conform

43

What is the difference between normative and informal social influence?

Normative Social Influence: influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection.
Informational Social Influence: the group may provide valuable information, but stubborn people will never listen to others.