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Flashcards in Chapter 2 pt. 1 Deck (39):
1

What are research methods?

methods they use in research

2

What happens when methods are not sound?

- we use the wrong test, or a bad test that doesn’t really represent my construct
-don’t treat every subject the same
-have a biased sample

3

When researching you need replication because otherwise we get a ____________ of results

generalizability

4

What was the Tuskegee Syphilis Study?

A clinical study conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service studying the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African-American men in Alabama under the auspices of receiving free health care from the United States government.
Once a cure was found though the subjects did not receive it and many of them died.

5

What are the steps in the scientific method?

(1) formulate a testable hypothesis
(2) select the research method and design the study
(3) collect the data
(4) analyze the data and draw conclusions
(5) report the findings

6

The scientific approach allows us to test ____________ & exclude alternate ___________

hypotheses
explanations

7

In order to achieve the scientific approach you must have clear hypotheses and ___________ _______ what you are measuring

operationally define

8

Differing approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies

research methods

9

Experimental research methods= manipulation of _________/__________

variables/behaviors

10

Descriptive/correlational research methods=measurement of ____________- no manipulation

behavior

11

__________ __________ methods=manipulation of variables/behaviors

experimental research

12

__________/__________ research methods =measurement of behavior- no manipulation

Descriptive/correlational

13

An __________ involves the manipulation of one variable under controlled conditions

experiment

14

Experiments allow for detection of _______-_____-_______ relationships

cause-and-effect

15

___________ allow for detection of cause-and-effect relationships

experiments

16

What is a variable?

anything you can change (i.e. it can vary) and concretely measure

17

What are the two main types of variables?

1. Independent Variable
2. Dependent Variable

18

Is this an independent or dependent variable:
condition or event varied by the experimenter

Independent variable

19

Is this an independent or dependent variable:
variable that is affected by manipulation

Dependent variable

20

The dependent variable depends on the ____________ of the independent variable

manipulation

21

The dependent variable is what we ___________

measure

22

The independent is what we ___________

manipulate

23

An experimental design is how does X (__________ variable) affect or change Y (___________ variable).

X=independent
Y=dependent

24

What are the goals of the scientific approach?

It assumes that there are laws of behavior that can be discovered through empirical research.

25

What are the goals of the science of psychology?

(1) the measurement and description of behavior
(2) the understanding and prediction of behavior
(3) the application of this knowledge to the task of controlling behavior

26

What is the difference between a theory and hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
A theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations.

27

What are the two types of experiment groups?

(1) experimental groups
(2) control groups

28

One (or more) groups in a experiment are assigned to the __________ group(s)

experimental

29

subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable

experimental group

30

group of participants who do not receive the special treatment

control group

31

Participants in the experimental group(s) and control group are alike in all respects, except for manipulation of ___________ variable

independent

32

Resulting differences in the two groups must be due to the independent variable – allows for _________ (IV caused differences in the DV)

causation

33

What type of variable, is a variable that the researcher failed to control, or eliminate, damaging the internal validity of an experiment?

Extraneous (or confounding) variable

34

How do you (at least attend to ) control for extraneous and confounding variables?

-Survey participants demographics/personality characteristics
-Random assignment!

35

What are the variations in types of studies?

(1) Expose a single group to two different conditions
(2) Manipulate more than one independent variable
(3) Use more than one dependent variable

36

What are the advantages to using the experimental method?

-Conclusions about cause-and-effect can be drawn
-Can understand the effects of different variables

37

What are the disadvantages of using the experimental method?

- Artificial nature of experiments
-Ethical and practical issues

38

What are the advantages of using descriptive/correlational research?

Explore questions that cannot be examined experimentally

39

What are the disadvantages of using descriptive/correlational research?

Investigators cannot control events to isolate cause and effect